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Truman P. Young - Professor and Restoration Ecologist


ACACIA publications (ant coexistence and mutualism)


  1. Young, T.P., C.H. Stubblefield & L.A. Isbell. 1997. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109:98-107. pdf
  2. Stanton, M L. & T. P. Young. 1999. Thorny relationships. Natural History Nov.: 28-31.
  3. Stanton, M.L., T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young, A. Evans, M.L. Turner. 1999. Sterilization and canopy modification of a swollen thorn acacia by a plant-ant. Nature 401:578-580. pdf
  4. Palmer, T.M., T.P. Young & M.L. Stanton. 2000. Short-term dynamics of an acacia ant community. Oecologia 123:425-435. pdf
  5. Mugo, John Kagori. 2000. Biological nitrogen fixation in Acacia drepanolobium . MSc Diss., Department of Botany, University of Nairobi.
  6. Palmer, T.M. 2001. Competition and Coexistence in a Guild of African Acacia Ants. Ph.D. Diss. University of California, Davis.
  7. Wood WF, Palmer TM, Stanton ML. 2002. A comparison of volatiles in mandibular glands from three Crematogaster ant symbionts of the whistling thorn acacia. Biochem Syst Ecol 30:217-222. pdf
  8. Stanton, M.L, T.M. Palmer , and T.P. Young. 2002. Tradeoffs between competition and colonization at two stages of colony development within a guild of African acacia-ants. Ecological Monographs 72:347-363. pdf
    See also this external summary
  9. Young, T.P., M.L. Stanton & C. Christian. 2003. Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Oikos 101:171-179. pdf
  10. Palmer, T.M., T.P. Young & M.L. Stanton. 2003. Burning bridges: priority effects and the persistence of a competitively subordinate acacia-ant in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia 133:372-379. pdf
  11. Palmer, T.M. 2003. Spatial habitat heterogeneity influences competition and coexistence in an African acacia ant guild. Ecology 84:2842-2855. pdf
  12. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, & T.P. Young. 2003. Competition and coexistence: exploring the mechanisms that restrict and maintain diversity within mutualist guilds. American Naturalist 161:S63-S79. pdf
  13. Huntzinger, P.M., R. Karban, T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2004. Relaxation of induced indirect defenses of acacias following removal of mammalian herbivores. Ecology 85:609-614. pdf
  14. Palmer, T.M. 2004. Wars of attrition: colony size determines competitive outcomes in a guild of African acacia-ants. Animal Behavior 68:993-1004. pdf
  15. Stanton, M.L, T.M. Palmer , and T.P. Young. 2005.  Ecological barriers to early colony establishment in three coexisting acacia ant species in Kenya. Insectes Sociaux 52:393-401. pdf
  16. Quicke, D.L.J. and M.L. Stanton. 2005.   Trigastrotheca laikipiensis sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): a new species of brood parasitic wasp that attacks foundress queens of three coexisting acacia-ant species in Kenya. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14:182-190.
  17. Wood, W.F., T.M. Palmer & M.L. Stanton. 2006.  Volatiles in the mandibular gland of Tetraponera penzigi: A plant ant of the whistling thorn acacia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 34:536-538.
  18. Palmer, T.M. and A.K. Brody. 2007. Mutualism as reciprocal exploitation: African plant-ants defend foliar but not reproductive structures. Ecology 88:3004-3011. pdf
  19. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen, R.M Pringle & R. Karban. 2008. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism following the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna.  Science 319:192-195 . pdf
  20. Palmer, T.M., D.F. Doak, M.L. Stanton, J.L. Bronstein, E.T. Kiers, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen & R.M. Pringle. 2010. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism. PNAS 107:17234-17239. pdf See also this.
  21. Goheen, J.R. & T.M. Palmer. 2010. Defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an African savanna. Current Biology 19:1768-1772.
  22. Kiers, E. T., T. M. Palmer, A. R. Ives, J. Bruno, and J. L. Bronstein. 2010. Mutualisms in a changing world: an evolutionary perspective. Ecology Letters 13:1459-1474.
  23. Stanton, M. L. and T. M. Palmer. 2011. The high cost of mutualism: effects of four species of East African ant symbionts on their myrmecophyte host tree. Ecology, in press.