Skip directly to: Main page content


Truman P. Young - Professor and Restoration Ecologist


KLEE Publications

(downloads available at:

The Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE) is the most productive field experiment ever carried out on the continent of Africa. Below are publications from research done at the exclosures, or funded by the project.


100. Sensenig, R.L., D.K. Kimuyu, J.C. Ruiz Guajardo, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species. Ecology, in revision

99. Kimuyu, D.M., R.L. Sensenig, R.M. Chira, J.M. Githaiga, and T.P. Young. Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem. International Journal of Wildland Fire, in revision.

98. Kimuyu, D.M., K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, R.M. Chira, J.M. Githaiga, and T.P. Young. Influence of cattle on grazing and browsing wildlife varies with season and presence of megaherbivores. Ecological Applications, online early.

97.   Palmer, T.M. and T.P. Young. 2017. Integrating ecological complexity into our understanding of ant-plant mutualism: ant-acacia interactions in African savannas. Chapter in: Oliveira, P.S. and Koptur, S., eds.  Ant-Plant Interactions: Impacts of Humans on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. in press.

96. Pringle, R.M., K.M. Prior, T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young, and J.R. Goheen. Large herbivores promote habitat specialization and beta diversity of African savanna trees. Ecology, in press.

95. Charles, G., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2017. Effects of different large herbivores on above-ground net primary productivity: grazing intensity affects the mean, but herbivore identity affects variability. Ecological Applications, in press.

94. Odadi, W.O., D.M. Kimuyu, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2017. Fire-induced negative responses of cattle to shared foraging with native ungulates in an African savanna, Journal of Applied Ecology, in press.

93.  Young, H,S., R. Dirzo, K.M. Helgen, D.J. McCauley, C. Nunn, P. Snyder, K.E. Veblen, S, Zhao, and V.O. Ezenwa. 2016. Large wildlife removal drives redistribution of immune defenses in rodents. Functional Ecology 30:799-807

92.  Porensky, L.M. and T.P. Young. 2016. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type. Landscape Ecology, in press. pdf

91.  Veblen, K.E., L.M. Porensky, C. Riginos, and T. P. Young. 2016. Are cattle surrogate wildlife? Savanna plant community composition explained by total herbivory, not herbivore identity. Ecological Applications 26:1610-1613. pdf

90.  Young, H,S D.J. McCauley, R. Dirzo, J.R. Goheen, B. Agwanda, E.O. Castillo, A. Ferguson, S.N. Kinyua, M. McDonough, T.M. Palmer, R.M. Pringle, T.P. Young, and K.M. Helgen. 2015. Context-dependent effects of large mammals declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 25:348-360. pdf

89.  Bonachela, R.M. Pringle, E. Sheffer, T.C. Coverdale, J.A. Guyton, K.K. Caylor, S.A. Levin, C.E. Tarnita. 2015. Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climatic change. Science 347:651-655.

88.  Porensky, L.M. and K.E. Veblen. 2015. Generation of ecosystem hotspots using short-term cattle corrals in an African savanna. Rangeland Ecology & Management 68:131-151.

87.  Ngatia, L.W., B.L.Turner, J.T. Njoka, T.P. Young, and K.R. Reddy. 2015. The effects of herbivory and nutrients on plant biomass and carbon storage in vertisols of an East African savanna. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment  208:55–63. pdf

86.  Young, H,S., R. Dirzo, D.J. McCauley, B. Agwanda, L. Cattaneo, K. Dittmarjj, R.P. Eckerlin, R.C. Fleischer, L.E. Helgen, A. Hintz, J. Montinieri, S. Zhao, K.M. Helgen. 2015. Drivers of intensity and prevalence of flea parasitism on small mammals in East African savanna ecosystems. Journal of Parasitology 101:327-335.

85.  Palmer, T.M., E.G. Pringle, A. Stier, and R.D. Holt. 2015. Mutualism in a community context. Pp. 159-180 in: Mutualism. J.L. Bronstein (ed). Oxford University Press.

84.  Pringle, R.M., D. Kimuyu, R.L. Sensenig, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, T.M. Palmer, and T.P. Young. 2015. Synergistic indirect effects of elephants and fire in an African savanna. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:1637–1645. pdf

83. Riginos, C. 2015. Climate alters the landscape of fear in an African savanna. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:124-133.

82. A.T., J.R. Goheen, T.O. Otieno, L. Bidner, L.A. Isbell, T.M. Palmer, D. Ward, R. Woodroffe, and R.M. Pringle. 2014. Large carnivores make savanna tree communities less thorny. Science 246:346-349.

81.  Dirzo, R., H.S. Young, M. Galetti, G. Ceballos, N.J.B. Isaac and B. Collen. 2014. Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science 345:401-406.

80. Keesing, F. and T.P. Young. 2014. Cascading consequences of the loss of large mammals in an African savanna. Bioscience 64:487-405. pdf

79. Petipas, R.H. and A.K. Brody. 2014. Termites and ungulates affect arbuscular mycorrhizal richness and infectivity in a semi-arid savanna. Botany 92:233-240.

78.  Young, H. S., R. Dirzo, K. M. Helgen, D. J. McCauley, S. Billeter, M. Kosoy, L. Osikowicz, T. P. Young, and K. Dittmar. 2014. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:7036-7041. pdf

75.  Kimuyu, D.K., R.L. Sensenig, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen and T.P. Young. 2014. Wild and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 24:741-749. See video of the burns here. pdf

74. Donihue, C.M., L.M. Porensky, J. Foufopoulus, C. Riginos and R.M. Pringle. 2013. Glade cascades: indirect legacy effects of pastoralism enhance the abundance and spatial structuring of arboreal fauna.  Ecology 94:827-837.

73. Bergstrom, B.J. 2013. Would East African savanna rodents inhibit woody encroachment? Evidence from stable isotopes and microhistological analysis of feces. Journal of Mammalogy 94:436-447.

72. Veblen, K.E. 2013. Impacts of traditional livestock corrals on woody plant communities in an East African savanna. The Rangeland Journal 35:349353.

71. Wilkerson, M.L., L.M. Roche, & T.P. Young. 2013. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna. Ecology and Evolution 3:3672-3682. pdf

70. Kirigia, A., J.T. Njoka, P.I.D Kinyua & T.P. Young.2013. Characterization of livestock manure market and the annual income contribution of manure trade in Mukogodo, Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8:5864-5871. pdf

69. Keesing, F., B.F. Allan, T.P. Young, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2013. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 23: 1410–1418. pdf

68. Porensky, L.M., S.E. Wittman, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2013. Herbivory and drought interact to enhance diversity and spatial patterning in a savanna understory. Oecologia 173:591-602. pdf

67. Young, H.S., D.J. McCauley, K.M. Helgen, E. Castillo, J.R. Goheen, T.M. Palmer, R.M. Pringle, T.P. Young, and R. Dirzo. 2013. Responses of plant communities to experimental removals of and anthropogenic declines in large mammalian herbivores. Journal of Ecology 101:1030-1041. pdf

66. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.S. Lemboi, J.R. Goheen & R.M. Pringle. 2013. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants. Ecology 94:1531-1539. pdf

65. Porensky, L.M. & T.P. Young. 2013. Edge interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes. 2013. Conservation Biology 27:509-519. pdf

64. Porensky, L.M., S.F. Bucher, K.E. Veblen, A.C. Treydte, and T.P. Young. 2013. Megaherbivores and cattle alter edge effects around ecosystem hotspots in an African savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 96:55-63. pdf

63. Odadi, W.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, M.M. Karachi, & T.P. Young. 2013. Protein supplementation-driven shifts in forage selection by cattle: implications for cattle wildlife coexistence. Ecological Application, 23:455-463. pdf

62. Kuria, S.K. and M.H. Villet. 2012. The role of ants and mammalian herbivores on the structure and composition of insect communities found on canopies of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7:5317-5331.

61. Veblen, K.E. 2012. Savanna glade hotspots: Plant community development and synergy with large herbivores.  Journal of Arid Environments 78:119-127. pdf

60. Riginos, R., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen, W.O. Odadi, R.L. Sensenig, F. Keesing, D. Kimuyu, M.L. Wilkerson, and T.P. Young.  2012. Lessons on the relationship between pastoralism and biodiversity from the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE). Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2012 2:10. Link or pdf

59. Porensky, L.M. and K.E. Veblen. 2012. Grasses and large herbivores reinforce landscape heterogeneity by excluding a savanna tree from ecosystem hotspots. Oecologia, pdf.

58. Odadi, W.O.O., M. Jain, S.E. Van Wieren, H.H.T. Prins and D.I. Rubenstein. 2011. Facilitation between bovids and equids on an African savanna. Evolutionary Ecology Research 13:237-252. pdf

57. Odadi, W.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, M.M. Karachi, & T.P. Young. 2011. African wild ungulates compete with or facilitate cattle depending on season.  Science 333:1753-1755. pdf (Supplementary material)

56. Maclean, J.E., J.R. Goheen, D.F. Doak, T.M. Palmer & T.P. Young. 2011. Cryptic herbivores mediate the strength and form of ungulate impacts on a long-lived savanna tree. Ecology 92:1626–1636. pdf

55. Porensky, L.M. 2011. When edges meet: interacting edge effects in an African savanna. Journal of Ecology 99:923-934. pdf

54. Pringle, R.M., T.M. Palmer, J.R. Goheen, D.J. McCauley, & F. Keesing.  2011. Ecological importance of large herbivores in the Ewaso ecosystem. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 632:43-53. pdf

53. Augustine, D.J., T.P. Young, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos  & J.R. Goheen. 2011. Pathways for positive cattle-wildlife interactions in semi-arid rangelands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 632:55-71. pdf

52. Goheen, J.R., T.M. Palmer, F. Keesing, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2010. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.  Journal of Animal Ecology 79:372-382. pdf

51. Treydte, A.C., C. Riginos and F. Jeltsch. 2010. Enhanced use of beneath-canopy vegetation by grazing ungulates in African savannahs. Journal of Arid Environments 74:1597-1603. pdf

50. Brody, A.K. T. M. Palmer, K. Fox-Dobbs, & D.F. Doak. 2010. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium. Ecology 91:399-407.pdf

49. Kuria, S.K., M.H. Villet, T.M. Palmer, & M.L. Stanton. 2010. A comparison of two sampling methods for surveying mammalian herbivore impacts on beetle communities in the canopy of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. African Entomology 18:87-98. pdf

48. Sensenig, R., M. Demment, & E.A. Laca. 2010. Allometric scaling predicts preferences for burned patches in a guild of East African grazers. Ecology 91:2898-2907. pdf

47. Fox-Dobbs, K., D. F. Doak, A. K. Brody, and & T. M. Palmer. 2010. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function in an East African savanna. Ecology 91:1296–1307.

46. Pringle, R.M., D.F. Doak, A.K. Brody, R. Jocque´, and T.M. Palmer. 2010. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna. PLoS Biology 8:1-12. pdf

45. Ogada, D.M. and F. Keesing. 2010. Rapid decline of vultures over a three-year period in Laikipia, Central Kenya. Journal of Raptor Research 44:129-135. pdf

44. King, E.G. and K.K.  Caylor. 2010. Herbivores and mutualistic ants interact to modify tree photosynthesis.  New Phytologist 187:18-22. pdf

43. Veblen K.E. & T.P. Young. 2010. Contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife on the vegetation development of a savanna landscape mosaic.  Journal of Ecology 98:993-1001. pdf

42. Kinyua, D.M., L.E. McGeoch, N. Georgiadis, & T.P. Young.  2010. Short-term and long-term effects of tilling, fertilization, and seeding on the restoration of degraded rangeland in Laikipia, Kenya.  Restoration Ecology 18S1:226-233. pdf

41. Goheen, J.R. & T.M. Palmer. 2010. Defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an African savanna. Current Biology 20:1768-1772. pdf

40. Riginos, C. 2009. Grass competition suppresses acacia growth across multiple demographic stages.  Ecology 90:335-340. pdf

39. Riginos, C., Grace, J.B., D.J. Augustine, & T.P. Young. 2009. Local versus landscape-scale effects of savanna trees on grasses. Journal of Ecology 97:1337-1345.pdf

38. Odadi, W.O., T.P. Young & J.B. Okeyo-Owuor. 2009. Effects of large wild herbivores on cattle intake and travel rates in a semi-arid savannah rangeland, Kenya. Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116:120-125. pdf

37. Sensenig, R.L. 2008. Fire Ecology in Laikipia, Kenya.  Booklet distributed to Laikipia landowners, managers, and stakeholders. 79pp. pdf

36. McCauley, D.J., F. Keesing, T.P. Young & K.Dittmar. 2008. Effects of the removal of large herbivores on fleas of small mammals. Journal of Vector Ecology 33:263-268. pdf

35. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen, R.M Pringle and R. Karban. 2008. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism following the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna.  Science 319:192-195. pdf

34. Ogada,D.M., M.E. Gadd, R.S. Ostfeld, T.P. Young and F. Keesing. 2008. Impacts of large herbivores on bird diversity and abundance in an African savanna. Oecologia 156:387-397. pdf

33. Okello, B.D., T.P. Young, C. Riginos, D. Kelly & T. O'Connor. 2008. Short-term survival and long-term mortality of Acacia drepanolobium after a controlled burn in Laikipia, Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology 46:395-401. pdf

32. Veblen, K.E. 2008. Season- and herbivore-dependent competition and facilitation in a semi-arid savanna.  Ecology 89:1532-1540. pdf

31. Riginos, C. & J.B. Grace. 2008. Tree density affects wild ungulate habitat use and herbaceous community characteristics in a Kenyan savanna. Ecology 89:2228-2238. pdf

30. Riginos, C. & T.P. Young. 2007. Positive and negative effects of grasses and wild and domestic herbivores on Acacia saplings. Oecologia 153:985-995. pdf

29. Odadi, W., T.P. Young, and J. Okeyo-Owuor. 2007. The effects of wild herbivores on cattle diet in Laikipia rangeland, Kenya.  Rangeland Ecology and Management 60:179-185. pdf

28. Pringle, R.M., T.P. Young, D.I. Rubenstein, & D.J. McCauley. 2007. Primary productivity and the strength of herbivore-initiated interaction cascades. PNAS 104:193-197. pdf

27. Young, T.P. & D.J. Augustine. 2007. Interspecific variation in the effects of large mammalian herbivores on reproduction in Acacia species in Laikipia, Kenya.  Biotropica 39:559-561. pdf

26. Goheen, J.R., T.P. Young, F. Keesing & T.M. Palmer. 2007. Consequences of herbivory by native ungulates for reproduction of a savanna tree. Journal of Ecology 95:129-138. pdf

25. Isbell, L.A. and T. P. Young. 2007.  Interspecific and temporal variation in domatia contents of the ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium, a staple food for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.  American Journal of Primatology 69:1387-1398. pdf

24. McCauley, D.J., F. Keesing, T.P. Young, J. Peters & B.F. Allan. 2006. Indirect effects of large herbivorous mammals on snakes in an African savanna.  Ecology 87:2657-2663. pdf

23. Young, T.P. 2006.  Declining rural economies and the future of biodiversity: missing the forest for the trees?  Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 9:319-138 . pdf

22. Young, T.P., T.M Palmer & M.E. Gadd. 2005. Competition and compensation among cattle, zebras, and elephants in a semi-arid savanna in Laikipia, Kenya. Biological Conservation 122:351-359. pdf

21. Gadd, M.E. 2005. Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation 32:50-63. pdf

20. Warui, C.M., M.H. Villet, T.P. Young & R. Jocque. 2005. Influence of grazing by large mammals on the spider community of a Kenyan savanna biome. Journal of Arachnology 33:269-279.  pdf

19. Huntzinger, P.M., R. Karban, T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2004. Relaxation of induced indirect defenses of acacias following removal of mammalian herbivores. Ecology 85:609-614. pdf

18. Goheen J.R., F. Keesing, B.F. Allan, et al. 2004. Net effects of large mammals on Acacia seedling survival in an African savanna. Ecology 85:1555-1561. pdf

17. Warui, C. M., M.H. Villet, & T.P. Young. 2004. Spiders (Araneae) from black cotton soils of a highland savanna in Laikipia, central Kenya. Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 1:13-24. pdf

16. Young, T.P., M.L. Stanton & C. Christian. 2003. Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Oikos 101:171-179. pdf

15. Ward, D. & T.P. Young. 2002. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:913-529. pdf

14. Shaw, M.T., F. Keesing, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2002. Herbivory on acacia seedlings in an East African savanna. Oikos 98:385-392. pdf

13. Okello, B.D., T.G. O’Connor, & T.P. Young. 2001. Growth, biomass estimates, and charcoal production of Acacia drepanolobium in Laikipia, Kenya. Forest Ecology & Management 142:143-153. pdf

12. Gadd, M.E., T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2001. Effects of simulated shoot and leaf herbivory in Acacia drepanolobium. Oikos 92:515-520. pdf

11. Keesing, F., and T. Crawford. 2001. Impacts of density and large mammals on space use by the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 465-472.

10. Metz M.R. & F. Keesing. 2001. Dietary choices of the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya. Biotropica 33: 182-187. pdf

9. Keesing, F. 2000. Cryptic consumers and the ecology of an African savanna. Bioscience 50:205-216. pdf

8. Okello, D.N. & T.P. Young. 2000. Effects of fire, bruchid beetles and soil type on the germination and seedling establishment of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 17:46-51. pdf

7. Young, T.P. and B.D. Okello. 1998. Relaxation of an induced defense after exclusion of herbivores: spines on Acacia drepanolobium. Oecologia 115:508-513. pdf

6. Keesing, F. 1998. Ecology and behaviour of the pouched mouse, Saccostomus mearnsi, in central Kenya. Journal of Mammalogy 79:919-931.

5. Keesing, F.L. 1998. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya. Oecologia 116:381-389. pdf

4. Young, T.P., B. Okello, D. Kinyua, & T.M. Palmer. 1998. KLEE: the Kenya long-term exclosure experiment. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 14:94-102. pdf

3. Young, T.P., C.H. Stubblefield & L.A. Isbell. 1997. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109:98-107. pdf

2. Young, T.P. 1995. Landscape mosaics created by canopy gaps, forest edges and bushland glades. Selbyana 16:127-134.

1. Young, T.P., N. Patridge & A. Macrae. 1995. Long-term glades in acacia bushland and their edge effects in Laikipia, Kenya. Ecological Applications 5: 97-108. pdf



22. Forbes, Elizabeth. 201x, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, in progress.

21. Charles, Grace K., 201x, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis, in progress.

20. Kimuyu, Duncan. 2016. Interactions between wildlife, cattle, and fire in a savanna ecosystem, Laikipia Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

19. Maclean, Janet E. 2012. Interacting effects of multiple herbivore guilds on the fitness and demography of a savanna tree. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of British Columbia.

18. Porensky, Lauren McGeoch. 2012. Interacting edges in an African savanna.  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Davis.

17. Ndoo, Vanencia.  2012. Effect of season and soil type on large herbivore dung decomposition rate in Laikipia savannah rangelands of Kenya. MSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

16. Petipas, Renee. 2011. Underground in gated communities: the effects of termites and ungulate herbivores on plant mycorrhizal associations. M.Sc. Sissertation, University of Vermont.

15. Odadi, Wilfred O. 2010. Competitive and facilitative interactions between cattle and wild ungulates in a semi-arid savanna rangeland in Laikipia, Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, Egerton University.

14. Kirigia, Anthony. 2010. Livestock manure flow from rangelands to cultivated lands in central Kenya: a case study of Mukogodo Division, Laikipia District. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

13. Kimathi, I. 2009. Effects of fire treatments on the aboveground herbaceous layer primary production in the savanna ecosystem, Laikipia District, Kenya. M.Sc. Diss., University of Nairobi.

12. Riginos, Corinna. 2008. Tree-grass interactions is an East African savanna: the role of wild an domestic herbivores. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

11. Veblen, Kari E. 2008. Livestock and wildlife effects on the successional development of a savanna landscape mosaic in East Africa. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

10. Okello, B.N. 2008. Effects of herbivores, fire and harvesting on the population dynamics of Acacia drepanolobium Sjoestedt in Laikipia, Kenya.  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Natal, South Africa.

9. Sensenig, R.L. 2007. Merging insights from allometric scaling, landscape ecology, and fire ecology to explain the coexistence of large savanna grazers. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis. See this summary.

8. Ngatia, L. 2006.  Effects of large herbivore exclusion on soil characteristics in Laikipia, Kenya.  MSc Diss., University of Nairobi.

7. Otieno, Silvanos. 2005. Effects of domestic and wild herbivore utilisation on herbaceous layer aboveground primary production in central Kenya savanna. M.Sc. dissertation, University of Nairobi.

6. Huntzinger, P. Mikaela. 2005.  Competition between herbviores of very different body sizes: the effects of large mammals on grasshoppers in Laikipia, Kenya.  Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

5. Warui, C. 2004.  Impacts of wildlife and cattle grazing on spider (Araneae) biodiversity in a highland savanna ecosystem, in Laikipia, central Kenya. Ph.D. dissertation, Rhodes University, South Africa.

4. Gadd, Michelle. 2003. Elephant ecology and conservation in African rangelands. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

3. Odadi, Wilfred. 2002. Cattle foraging behaviour: the influence of large mammalian herbivory in an acacia savanna, Laikipia, Kenya. MSc dissertation, Moi University, Kenya.

2. Misurelli, Darcy. 2001. Effects of large mammal herbivores on the bird community of an East African savanna. M.Sc. dissertation, SUNY Albany.

1. Keesing, Felicia. 1997. Ecological interactions between small mammals, large mammals, and vegetation in a tropical savanna of central Kenya. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley.


Outreach publications, Notes, etc.

Kimuyu, D. 2015. Burning Issues: Does size matter? Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue, pg. 6.

Young, T.P. 2014.  Happy 20th, Mpala! Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue.

Young, T.P., R.L. Sensenig, D.M. Kimuyu, C. Riginos, and K.E. Veblen. 2013. Livestock and wildlife reduce fire intensity. (KLEE Corner #18) Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  November Issue.

Young, T.P., R.L. Sensenig and D.M. Kimuyu. 2013. Controlled burns in KLEE: is fire a bane or a boon? (KLEE Corner #17) Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  July Issue.

Young, T.P. 2013. Fire in the belly. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue.

Porensky, L.M., K.E. Veblen, & T.P. Young. 2011. What is so special about glade edges? (KLEE Corner #16). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter  July 2011 Issue.

Veblen, K.E. & T.P. Young. 2011. Plants helping plants in defense against cattle and wildlife (KLEE Corner #15). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January 2011 Issue.

Young, T.P., D.N. Kinyua & L.McGeoch. 2010.  How can we restore degraded rangeland? (KLEE Corner #14).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  June 2010 Issue.

Young, T.P. & R.Y. Sensenig. 2010.  Elephants and fire together suppress Acacia drepanolobium more than either alone. (KLEE Corner #13).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January 2010 Issue.

McGeoch, L.E.  2009.  Will mobile bomas be a good management tool?  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January Issue, pp. 1, 5.

Young. T.P. 2009. Five more years of funding for the KLEE project.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January Issue, pg. 3.

Goheen, J. & T.M. Palmer. 2009. Of megaherbivores and mutualists: how ants can protect against tree encroachment in the absence of elephants. (KLEE Corner #12).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  June 2009 Issue.

Veblen, K.E. 2009.  Cattle and wildlife afect development of old boma sites. (KLEE Corner #11).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue.

Riginos, C. 2008.  Pictorial Guide to the Common Grasses of the Black Cotton Ecosystem of Laikipia.

Wilkerson, M.L. & T. P. Young.  2008.  Butterflies and blooms: contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife. (KLEE Corner #10).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  May Issue.

Riginos, C. & M. Kinnaird. 2008. What role should Mpala Research Centre and Ranch play in Laikipia? Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  July issue

Young, T.P. 2008.  Cattle do compete with wildlife in Laikipia, even if they are “compatible”. (KLEE Corner #9).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January 2008 Issue.

Pringle, R.M. & D.J. McCauley. 2007.  Zebras, giraffes, and snakes in the grass. (KLEE Corner #8). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January 2007 Issue.

Riginos, C. 2007. Tree density affects wild herbivore habitat preferences. Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter. July issue.

Riginos, C. 2007. The Kenya Long-term Exclusion Experiment comes of age. Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter. Fall issue.

Riginos, C. 2006.  Cattle, wildlife, and grasses affect bush encroachment.  (KLEE Corner #7). Laikipia WildlifeForum Newsletter.  July 2006 Issue.

Young, T.P. and J.R. Goheen. 2006.  Whistling thorn recruitment is affected in unexpected ways by large mammals. (“KLEE Corner” #6). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue.

Riginos, C. 2006. Cattle, wildlife, and grass affect bush encroachment. Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter. July issue.

Young, T.P. 2005. The pathology of no herbivory: long-term effects of herbivore exclusion in an African savanna. ("KLEE Corner" #5). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter. March/April Issue.

Goheen, J.R., F. Keesing, B.F. Allan, D. Ogada, R.S. Ostfeld & T.P. Young. 2004. Contrasting the effects of native versus exotic grazers in an East African savanna: establishment of the whistling thorn tree (Acacia drepanolobium). Poster for the 2004 STAR Fellowship Conference. pdf

Young, T.P. 2004. Do elephants lessen competition between cattle and zebras? ("KLEE Corner" #4). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter. November Issue.

Young, T.P. 2004. Plants fight back. ("KLEE Corner" #3). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter. May Issue.

Young, T.P. 2003. Rodents take advantage of the absence of large mammals ("KLEE Corner" #2). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter. November Issue.

Young, T.P. 2003. KLEE: the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment ("KLEE Corner" #1). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter. March/April Issue.