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Truman P. Young - Professor and Restoration Ecologist


Research Bibliography for Mpala and Segera (and other parts of Laikipia)


Peer-Reviewed Journals | Books | Abstracts and conference proceedings | Notes and reports, general distribution | Reports, limited distribution | Dissertations | Popular Articles | Other Laikipia ecology/behavior research | Laikipia Research Programme publications


Other Laikipia ecology/behavior research, not at Mpala/Segera

  (peer-reviewed papers only)

Segera: (some of these publications are also listed under Mpala, above, if they were carrid out out of Mpala Research Centre)

Carlson AA & Isbell LA. 2001. Causes and consequences of single-male and multi-male mating in free-ranging patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas. Animal Behaviour 62:1047-1058.

Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young. 2002. Ecological models of female social relationships in primates: similarities, disparities, and some directions for future clarity. Behaviour 139:177-202.

Enstam KL, Isbell LA & De Maar TW. 2002.  Male demography, female mating behavior, and infanticide in wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). International Journal of Primatology 23:85-104.

Isbell, L.A. and K.L. Enstam. 2002. Predator-(in)sensitive foraging in sympatric vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas): a test of ecological models of group dispersion. In: Eat or Be Eaten: Predation-Sensitive Foraging in Primates (L.E. Miller, ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 154-168.

Enstam KL, Isbell LA.  2002.  Comparison of responses to alarm calls by patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119:3-14.

Isbell, L.A., D.L. Cheney, and R.M. Seyfarth. 2003.  Why vervets live in multi-male groups. Pp. 173-188 in The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys. (M.E, Glenn and M. Cords, eds.). Kluwer Academic, New York.

Isbell, L.A. 2004.  Is there no place like home?  Ecological bases of dispersal in primates and their consequences for the formation of kin groups.  Pp. 71-108 in Kinship and Behavior in Primates (B. Chapais and C. Berman, eds.). Oxford University Press.

Isbell, L.A. 2006. Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51:1-35.

Enstam, K.L. 2007. Effects of habitat structure on perceived risk of predation and anti-predator behavior in vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas (Erythrocebus patas) monkeys. Pp. 308-338 in: Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. (S. Gursky and K.A.I. Nekaris, eds.). Springer, New York.

Enstam, K.L. and Isbell, L.A. (2007) The guenons (genus Cercopithecus) and their allies: Behavioral ecology of polyspecific associations. Pp. 252-274 in: Primates in Perspective (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. Mackinnon, M.A. Panger, and S.K. Bearder, eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lemasson, A., Palombit, R.A. & Jubin, R.  2007.  Is friendship between adult males and lactating females a counter-strategy to infanticide?  Observations and playback experiments in Kenyan olive baboons.  Folia Primatologica 78:202.

Lemasson, A., Palombit, R.A. & Jubin, R.  2008.  Friendships between males and lactating females in wild olive baboons: Observations and call playback experiments.  Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 67:1027-1035.

Palombit, R.A.  2008.  Primates.  International Encylopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd edition, (W.A. Darity, ed), vol. 6, pp. 459-462.   Macmillan / Thomas Gale, Detroit, Michigan.

Jaffe KE, Isbell LA. 2009.  Observations on a group of wild vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after a predator-induced group fusion event in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 7: 62-62.

Jaffe K.E., and L.A. Isbell. 2009.  After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Journal of Primatology 71: 252-260.

Isbell, L.A. T.P. Young, K.E. Jaffe, A.A. Carlson, & R.L. Chancellor. 2009. Demography and life history of sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Laikipia, Kenya. International Journal of Primatology 30:103-124.

Palombit, R.A. 2009.  Friendships with males: A female counterstrategy to infanticide in the Okavango chacma baboons.  In: Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans: An Evolutionary Perspective On Male Aggression Against Females, (M.N. Muller & R.W. Wrangham, eds.), pp. 377-409.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Isbell, L.A. 2009.  The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well.  Harvard University Press.

Jaffe, K.E. and L.A. Isbell. 2010 Changes in ranging and agonistic behavior of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after predator-induced group fusion. American Journal of Primatology 72:634–644.

Isbell, L.A. in press. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). The Mammals of Africa, Vol. I. Primates. (J. Kingdon, D. Happold, and T. Butynski, eds.). Academic Press.

Isbell, L.A. & K.L. Enstam, in press. Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). To appear in The Mammals of Africa, Vol. I. Primates. (J. Kingdon, D. Happold, and T. Butynski, eds.). Academic Press.

Palombit. R.A.  in press.  The olive baboon (Papio anubis). To appear in: Mammals of Africa, Vol. I. Primates. (J. Kingdon, D. Happold, & T. Butynski, eds). Academic Press.

Palombit, R.A.  in press. Olive baboon (Papio anubis). To appear in: All the World's Primates (N. Rowe, ed).  Charlestown, Rhode Island.  Pogonias Press.

Palombit, R.A.  in press.  Conflict (and bonding) between the sexes.  In: Mind the Gap—Tracing the Origins of Human Universals (P.M. Kappeler & J.B. Silk, editors).  Springer.


Ol Ari Nyiro:

Horne JFM, Short LL. 1990.  Wax-eating by African common bulbuls.  Wilson Bull 102:339-341.

Young, T.P. & C. Francombe.  1991. Growth and yield estimates in natural stands of leleshwa (Tarconanthus camphoratus).  Forest Ecology and Management 42:309-321

Ghebremeskel, K., G. Williams, R.A. Brett, R. Burek & L.S. Harbige. 1991. Nutrient composition of plants most favored by black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the wild.  Comp Biochem Phys A 98:529-534.

Grootenhuis, J.G. & R.O. Olubayo. 1993.  Disease research in the wildlife-livestock interface in Kenya. Vet Quart 15:55-59.

Oloo, T.W., R. Brett  & T.P. Young.  1994. Seasonal variation in the feeding ecology of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Laikipia, Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology 32:142-157.

Mwasya, J.M., T.P. Young & D.N. Okebiro. 1994. Vegetation map and plant check-list of Ol Ari Nyiro Ranch and the Mukutan Gorge, Laikipia, Kenya.  Journal of East African Natural History 83:143-198.

Newton, L.E. 1994. Four new species of Aloe in Kenya.  Cact Succ J Gr Br 12:50-56.

Kennedy A.D. 1998. Coppicing of Tarconanthus camphoratus (Compositae) as a source of sustainable fuelwood production: an example from the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 36:148-158.

*Short, L. & J. Horne.  2001 (2002?).  Toucans, Barbets, and Honeyguides - Ramphastidae, Capitonidae and Indicatoridae.  630 pp.  Oxford University Press.
Dioli, M; Fox, MI. 2004.  First record of the camel tick Rhipicephalus muhsamae in Kenya on a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Record 155:206-208.

Short, L.L.  & J.F.M. Horne. 2006. The avifauna of an upland seasonal woodland in central Kenya : ecology, behavior, breeding.  Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, 2006. Series Bonner zoologische Monographien, No. 53

Graham, M.D., and T. Ochieng. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42: 76-82.


Northern Laikipia/Samburu elephants (see also Graham & Ochieng, above):

Thouless, C.R. 1994.  Conflict between humans and elephants on private land in northern Kenya.  Oryx 28:119-127.

Thouless CR. 1995.  Long distance movements of elephants in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 33:321-334.

Thouless CR, Sakwa J. 1995. Shocking elephants - fences and crop raiders in Laikipia District, Kenya. Biol Conserv 72: 99-107.

Thouless CR. 1996.  Home ranges and social organization of female elephants in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 34: 284-297.

Wittemyer, G. 2001. The elephant population of Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves.  African Journal of Ecology 39:357–365.

Omondi, E. Bitok, O. Kahindi and R. Mayienda. 2002.  Total Aerial Count of Elephants in Samburu/Laikipia, Kenya. Wildlife Service Report, Nairobi, Kenya (2002).

Rasmussen, L.E.L. & Wittemyer, G. 2002. Chemosignaling of musth by individual wild African elephants, (Loxodonta africana): implications for conservation and management. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 269:853-860.

Wittemyer, D.K. Daballen, H.B.R. Rasmussen, O. Kahindi and I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2005. The demographic status of the Samburu elephant population.  African Journal of Ecology 43:44–47.

Wittemyer G, Douglas-Hamilton I, Getz WM. 2005.  The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multi-tiered social structures.  Animal Behaviour 69:1357-1371.

Okello, J.B.A., G. Wittemyer, H.B. Rasmussen, I. Douglas-Hamilton, S. Nyakaana, P. Arctander and H.R. Siegismund. 2005.  Noninvasive genotyping and Mendelian analysis of microsatellites in African savannah elephants.  Journal of Heredity 96:679-687.

Wittemyer G. 2005. Secrets of the savanna: Twenty-three years in the African wilderness unraveling the mysteries of elephants and people.  Social Biology 52 (3-4): 192-193.

Douglas-Hamilton I, Krink T, Vollrath F. 2005. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas. Naturwissenschaften 92:158-163.

Rasmussen, H.B., O. Kahindi, F. Vollrath & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2005.  Estimating elephant densities from wells and droppings in dried out riverbeds.  African Journal of Ecology 43:312-319.

Cerling, T.E., G. Wittemyer, H.B. Rasmussen, F. Vollrath, C.E. Cerling, T.J. Robinson and I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2006.  Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes. PNAS 103:371-373.

Rasmussen, H. B., Wittemyer, G., & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2005.  Estimating age of immobilized elephants from teeth impressions using dental silicon. African Journal of Ecology 43:215-219.

Douglas-Hamilton I, Bhalla S, Wittemyer G, Vollrath F. 2006.  Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:87-102.

Wittemyer G, Getz WM. 2006. A likely ranking interpolation for resolving dominance orders in systems with unknown relationships. Behaviour 143:909-930.

Rasmussen, H. B., Wittemyer, G., & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2006. Predicting time specific changes in demographic processes using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Ecology43:366-376.

Wall J, Douglas-Hamilton I, Vollrath F. 2006. Elephants avoid costly mountaineering. Current Biology 16:R527-R529.

Wittemyer G, Ganswindt A, Hodges K. 2007. The impact of ecological variability on the reproductive endocrinology of wild female African elephants. Hormones and Behavior 51 (3): 346-354. [Correction in 52:554-555.]

Wittemyer G, Getz WM. 2007. Hierarchical dominance structure and social organization in African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour 73:671-681.

Wittemyer G, Rasmussen HB, Douglas-Hamilton I. 2007. Breeding phenology in relation to NDVI variability in free-ranging African elephant. Ecography 30: 42-50.

King, L.E., I. Douglas-Hamilton & F. Vollrath. 2007. African elephants run from the sound of disturbed bees. Current Biology 17:R832-R833.

Wittemyer, G.,W.M.  Getz, F. Vollrath, & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2007. Social dominance, seasonal movements, and spatial segregation in African elephants: a contribution to conservation behavior. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 61:1919-1931.

Okello JBA, Masembe C, Rasmussen HB, Wittemyer G, Omondi P, Kahindi O, Muwanika VB, Arctander P, Douglas-Hamilton I, Nyakaana S, and Siegismund HR. 2008. Population genetic structure of savannah elephants in Kenya: Conservation and management implications. Journal of Heredity 99:443-452.

Okello, J.B.A., G. Wittemyer G, H.B. Rasmussen, P. Arctander P, I. Douglas-Hamilton, & H.R. Siegismund. 2008. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants. Molecular Ecology 17:3788-3799.

Cerling, T.E., G. Wittemyer, J.R. Ehleringer, C.H. Remien, & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2009. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 8093-8100.

King LE, Lawrence A, Douglas-Hamilton I, et al. 2009. Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology  47: 131-137. (“Laikipia”)
Vanleeuwe, H. 2009. Counting elephants in Montane forests: some sources of error. African Journal of Ecology  47: 164-174. (Mount Kenya)

Graham MD, Douglas-Hamilton I, Adams WM, Lee PC. 2009. The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic. Animal Conservation 12: 445-455.

Kahindi, O., G. Wittemyer, J. King, F. Ihwagi, P. Omondi and I. Douglas-Hamilton (2009) Employing participatory surveys to monitor the illegal killing of elephants across diverse land uses in Laikipia–Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, Online.

Ihwagi FW, Vollrath F, Chira RM, Douglas-Hamilton I, Kironchi G. 2010. The impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48: 87-95.

Kahindi, O., G. Wittemyer, J. King, F. Ihwagi, P. Omondi and I.Douglas-Hamilton. 2010. Employing participatory surveys to monitor the illegal killing of elephants across diverse land uses in Laikipia–Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48: 972–983.

Polansky L, Wittemyer G. 2011. A framework for understanding the architecture of collective movements using pairwise analyses of animal movement data. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 8:322-333.

Boettiger, A., G. Wittemyer, R. Starfield, F. Vollrath, I. Douglas-Hamilton, and W. Getz. Inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of African elephant movement using a linear filtering approach. Ecology, in press.


Samburu Vervets:

Whitten,  P.L. and T.R. Turner. 2008. Ecological and Reproductive Variance in Serum Leptin in Wild Vervet Monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137: 441-448.


Sweetwaters/Ol Pejeta:

Tatman SC, Stevens-Wood B, Smith VBT. 2000. Ranging behaviour and habitat usage in black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, in a Kenyan sanctuary. African Journal of Ecology 38:163-172.

Birkett A. 2002.  The impact of giraffe, rhino and elephant on the habitat of a black rhino sanctuary in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 40:276-282.

Birkett A, Stevens-Wood B. 2005.  Effect of low rainfall and browsing by large herbivores on an enclosed savannah habitat in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 43:123-130.

Rice MB, Jones M. 2006.  Characteristics of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) bedding sites.  African Journal of Ecology 44:452-457.
Simiyu, T.W., G.A. Olukoye, J.W. Wakhungu & W.N. Wamicha. 2007.  Productivity indexing of wild herbivores on Lewa Wildlife Conservancy and Ol Pejeta Ranch in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:416-422.

Fischhoff, I.R., S.R. Sundaresan, J. & R. Rubenstein. 2007.  Habitat use and movements of plains zebra (Equus burchelli) in response to predation in danger from lions. Behavioral Ecology 18:725-729.

Fischhoff IR, Sundaresan SR, Cordingley J, & D.I. Rubenstein. 2007. Social relationships and reproductive state influence leadership roles in movements of plains zebra, Equus burchelli. Animal Behaviour 73: 825-831.

Sundaresan SR, Fischhoff IR, Dushoff J, & D.I. Rubenstein. 2007. Network metrics reveal differences in social organization between two fission-fusion species, Grevy's zebra and onager. Oecologia 151:140-149.

Wahungu GM, Mureu LK, Macharia PG. 2010. Variability in survival and mortality of Acacia drepanolobium Sjostedt following prescribed burning at Olpejeta Conservancy, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48:744-750.

Patton FJ, Mulama MS, Mutisya S, Campbell PE. 2010. The effect of removing a dividing fence between two populations of black rhinos. Pachyderm 47: 55-58.

Patton FJ, Mulama MS, Mutisya S, Campbell PE. 2010. The colonization of a new area in the first six months following 'same-day' free release translocation of black rhinos in Kenya. Pachyderm 47: 66-79.

Patton FJ, Campbell PE. 2010. Eighteen-month update on the movements and social organization of a population of black rhinos introduced to a new area by 'same day' free release translocation in Kenya. Pachyderm 48:71-72.


Lewa Conservancy (& “Southern Samburu”):

Muoria, P.K., P, Muruthi, W.K. Kariuki, B.A. Hassan, D. Mijele, & N.O. Oguge. 2007. Anthrax outbreak among Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) in Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:483–489.

See also Simiyu et al. 2007 in Sweetwaters articles.

Parker, G., S. Sundaresan, G. Chege & T. O'Brien. 2011.  Using sample aerial surveys to estimate the abundance of the endangered Grevy's zebra in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49: 56-61.



Mizutani F, Jewell PA. 1998.  Home-range and movements of leopards (Panthera  pardus) on a livestock ranch in Kenya.  J Zool 244: 269-286.

Mizutani F. 1999. Impact of leopards on a working ranch in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 37: 211-225. [See also a correction at 37: 475]

Mizutani F. 1999.  Biomass density of wild and domestic herbivores and carrying capacity on a working ranch in Laikipia District, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 37:226-240.

Iles L, Martinon-Torres M. 2009. Pastoralist iron production on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya: wider implications for archaeometallurgical studies. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 2314-2326.


Mutara (see also publication #115 under Mpala, and Graham & Ochieng, above):

Chism, Janice Barker. 1980. A comparison of development and mother-infant relations in patas and talapoin monkeys, Ph.D. Diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Chism J, Olson D.K. 1982.  Patterns of habitat use by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 57:176-176

Chism J., D.K. Olson & T.E. Rowell. 1983.  Diurnal births and perinatal behavior among wild patas monkeys - evidence of an adaptive pattern.  Int J Primatol 4:67-184.

Olson D.K., Chism J. 1984.  Gum feeding as a dietary adaptation of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) In Kenya. Int J Primatol 5: 370-370.

Olson D.K., Chism J. 1984.  Mating season and diet among wild patas monkeys in Kenya.  Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 63: 199-200.

Chism J. 1986.  Development and mother infant relations among captive patas monkeys. Int J Primatol 7: 49-81.

Chism J.B. & T.E. Rowell. 1986. Mating and residence patterns of male patas monkeys.  Ethology 72:31-39.

Rowell. T.E. & J. Chism. 1986.  The ontogeny of sex-differences in the behavior of patas monkeys.  Int J Primatol 7:83-107.

Harding, R.S.O. & D.K. Olson. 1986.  Patterns of mating among male patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. Am J Primatol 11:343-358.

Izard, M.K. & L.T. Nash. 1988. Contrasting reproductive parameters in Galago senegalensis braccatus and G. s. moholi. J Primatol 9:519-527.

Nash, L.T. & P.L. Whitten. 1989.  Preliminary-observations on the role of acacia gum chemistry in acacia utilization by Galago senegalensis in Kenya.  Am J Primatol 17:27-39.

Chism, J. & W. Rogers. 1997. Male competition, mating success and female choice in a seasonally breeding primate (Erythrocebus patas).  Ethology 103:109-126.
Rogers W& J. Chism. 2009. Male dispersal in patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Behaviour146: 657-676.

Chism, J. & W. Rogers. 2002. Grooming and social cohesion in patas monkeys and other guenons.  Pp. 233-244 in M.E. Glenn & M. Cords, The guenons: diversity and adaptation in African monkeys. International Primatological Society.

Rogers, W. & J. Chism. 2009. Male dispersal in patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Behaviour 146: 657-676.


Engare Ndare (lower):

Hardy L.M. 1993.  Activity and reproductive patterns of of amphibians and reptiles from the Engare Ondare River region of Central Kenya, during the dry season.  Proc. Biol Soc. Wash. 106:740-748.

Hardy L.M. & A.C. Crnkovic. 2006.  Diet of amphibians and reptiles from the Engare Ondare River region of Central Kenya, during the dry season.  African Journal of Herpetology 55:143-159.


Chololo (Mukugodo):

Strum, S.C. 1987, 1990. Almost Human. A Journey into the World of Baboons. University of Chicago Press. (Second edition 2001, with a New Introduction and Epilogue.)

Barton, R.A., A. Whiten, S.C. Strum, et al. 1992. Habitat use and resource availability in baboons. Animal Behaviour 43:831-844.

Barton, R.A. 1993.   Sociospatial mechanisms of feeding competition in female olive baboons, Papio anubis .   Anim Behav 46:791-802.

Barton, R.A., A. Whiten, R.W. Byrne, et al. 1993. Chemical-composition of baboon plant foods - implications for the interpretation of intraspecific and interspecific differences in diet. Folia Primatol 61:1-20.

Barton, R.A. and A. Whiten. 1993. Feeding competition among female olive baboons, papio-anubis.   Anim Behav 46 (4): 777-789 Oct 1993

Barton, R.A. and A. Whiten. 1994.   Reducing complex diets to simple rules - food selection by olive baboons.   Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:283-293.

Sambrook, T.D., A. Whiten and S.C. Strum. 1995.   Priority of access and grooming patterns of females in a large and a small group of olive baboons.   Anim Behav 50:1667-1682.

Barton, R.A., R.W. Byrne and A. Whiten. 1996.   Ecology, feeding competition and social structure in baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38:321-329.

Strum, S.C. 1998.   Moving the Pumphouse Gang. International Wildlife :28: 12-21.

Castles, DL; Whiten, A. 1998.  Post-conflict behaviour of wild olive baboons. II. Stress and self-directed behaviour. Ethology 104:148-160.

Castles, DL; Whiten, A; Aureli, F 1999. Social anxiety, relationships and self-directed behaviour among wild female olive baboons. Animal Behaviour 58:1207-1215.

Strum, S.C. 2005.  Measuring success in primate translocation: A baboon case study American Journal of Primatology 65:117-140.

Forster, D. & P.F. Rodriguez. 2006. Social complexity and distributed cognition in olive baboons (Papio anubis): Adding system dynamics to analysis of interaction data.  Aquatic Mammals 32:528-543.

Frank, R.E. & J.B. Silk. 2009. Grooming exchange between mothers and non-mothers: the price of natal attraction in wild baboons (Papio anubis).  Behaviour 146: 889-906.


Mihok, S., S.K. Moloo, J.O. Odeny, R.A. Brett, J.G. Rakwar, E. Munyoki, J. Kiilu and C.A. Kyorku. 1996.  Attractiveness of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) to tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other biting flies. Bull. Entom. Res. 86:33-41.

Patton F, Campbell P, Parfet E. 2007. Establishing a monitoring system for black rhinos in the Solio Game Reserve, central Kenya. Pachyderm 43: 87-95.

Patton F, Campbell P, Parfet E. 2008. Biological management of the high density black rhino population in Solio Game Reserve, central Kenya. Pachyderm 44: 72-79.

Ol Jogi:

Kimber KR, Lubroth J, Dubovi EJ, Berninger ML, Demaar TW. 2002.  Serologic survey of selected viral, bacterial, and protozoal agents in captive and free-ranging ungulates from central Kenya. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 969:217-223.

Huebinger RM, De Maar TWJ, Woodruff LH, Pomp D, Louis EE. 2006. Characterization of eight microsatellite loci in Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti). Molecular Ecology Notes 6:1150-1151.

Huebinger RM, De Maar TWJ, Woodruff LH, Pomp D, Louis EE. 2006. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Molecular Ecology Notes 6:1152-1153.

Ndung'u, FK; Ndegwa, MW; deMaar, TWJ. 2003. Patent urachus with subsequent joint infection in a free-living Grevy's zebra foal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39:244-245.

Karissa (Loroki Forest; 1oN, 37oE):

Borghesio L, Laiolo P. 2004. Seasonal foraging ecology in a forest avifauna of northern Kenya. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:145-155.


Lesorogol, C.K. 2008. Land privatization and pastoralist well-being in Kenya. Development and Change 39: 309–331.

Lesorogol, C.K. 2010.  The Impact of Privatization on Land Inheritance among Samburu Pastoralists in Kenya. Development and Change 41(6)   DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2010.01668.x.

Koija (Mukugodo):

King EG, Stanton ML. 2008.  Facilitative effects of Aloe shrubs on grass establishment, growth, and reproduction in degraded Kenyan rangelands: Implications for restoration. Restoration Ecology 16: 464-474


Cronk, L. 1989. From hunters to herders: subsistence change as a reproductive strategy among the Mukogodo. Current Anthropology 30:224-234.

Ng'ethe, R., A. Kariuki, and C. Opondo. 1997. Some experience on adaptive research input on natural resource use: the case of gums and resins in Mukogodo rangelands, Laikipia District Kenya. Conservation, Management and Utilization of Plant Gums Resins and Essential Oils: Proceedings of a Regional Conference for Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi, Kenya.

Mbuvi, J.P. and S.N. Wanjogu, 1998. Crusts and their influence on soil properties in two semi arid areas of Kenya. Appl. Plant Sci. Vol. 12: 83-87.

Mbuvi, J.P. and S.N. Wanjogu, 1998. Land degradation in Laikipia District. Appl. Plant Sci. 12:88-92

Little, P. D., K. Smith, B. A. Cellarius, D. L. Coppock, and C. B. Barrett. 2001. Avoiding disaster: Diversification and risk management among east African herders. Development and Change 32:401-433.

Cronk, L. 2002. From true Dorobo to Mukogodo Maasai: contested ethnicity in Kenya. Ethnology 41:27-49.
Pearl FB, Dickson DB. 2004.  Geoarchaeology and prehistory of the Kipsing and Tol River watersheds in the Mukogodo Hills region of Central Kenya.  Geoarchaeology-An International Journal 19:565-582.

Mizutani, F., E. Muthiani, P. Kristjanson, and H. Recke. 2005. Impact and value of wildlife in pastoral livestock production systems in Kenya: possibilities for healthy ecosystem conservation and livestock development for the poor. Pages 121-132 in S. A. Osofsky, S. Cleaveland, W. B. Karesh, M. D. Kock, P. J. Nyhus, L. Starr, and A. Yang, editors. Conservation and Development Interventions at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface: Implications for Wildlife, Livestock and Human Health. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mati BM, Morgan RPC, Quinton JN. 2006.  Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM at Embori and Mukogodo catchments, Kenya. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31:579-588.

Lange CN, Mugambi J. 2006.  The butterflies of Mkogodo forests, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 44:286-289.
Webala PW, Muriuki G, Lala F, Bett A. 2006. The small mammal community of Mukogodo Forest, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 44:363-370.

Webala PW, Muriuki G, Lala F, Bett A. 2006. The small mammal community of Mukogodo Forest, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 44:363-370.

Cronk, L. 2007.  The influence of cultural framing on play in the trust game: a Maasai example. Evolution and Human Behavior 28:352-358.
Huho, J.M. J.K.W. Ngaira & H.O. Ogindo. 2009. Climate Change and Pastoral Economy in Kenya: A Blinking Future. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition 83: 1017-1023.

Huho, J.M. J.K.W. Ngaira & H.O. Ogindo. 2009. Climate Change and Pastoral Economy in Kenya: A Blinking Future. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition 83: 1017-1023.


Wright, HWY. 2006. Paternal den attendance is the best predictor of offspring survival in the socially monogamous bat-eared fox. Animal Behaviour 71:503-510.

Wagner, A.P., 2006. Behavioral ecology of the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena). Ph.D. dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.

Wagner AP, Frank LG, Creel S, Coscia EM. 2007. Transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena). Hormones and Behavior 51:626-632.

Wagner AP, Creel S, Frank LG, Kalinowski ST. 2007. Patterns of relatedness and parentage in an asocial, polyandrous striped hyena population. Molecular Ecology 16:4356-4369.

Suyian, Powys:

Powys, A. & R. Schulz. 1998. Pinguone, Kenya: Succulents and their Environment. Schulz Publishing.

Taylor D, Lane PJ, Muiruri V, et al. 2005.  Mid- to late-holocene vegetation dynamics on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. Holocene 15:837-846.

Martins, D.J. 2010. Not all ants are equal: obligate acacia ants provide different levels of protection against mega-herbivores. African Journal of Ecology 48: 1115–1122.


Ogada, D,L. and P.M. Kibuthu. 2008. Conserving Mackinder's eagle owls in farmlands of Kenya: assessing the influence of pesticide use, tourism and local knowledge of owl habits in protecting a culturally loathed species. Environmental Conservation 35: 252-260.

Ogada, D.L. 2008. The ecology and conservation of Mackinder's eagle owls (Bubo capensis mackinderi) in central Kenya in relation to agricultural land-use and cultural attitudes. Ph.D. thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa: 91 pp.

Ndiritu GG, Stephenson SL, Spiegel FW 2009. First Records and Microhabitat Assessment of Protostelids in the Aberdare Region, Central Kenya. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56:148-158   

Muruku sub-location, near Rumuruti?

Lawyer PG, Mebrahtu YB, Ngumbi PM, Mwanyumba P, Mbugua J, Kiilu G, Kipkoech D, Nzovu J, Anjili CO. 1991. Phlebotomus guggisbergi (Diptera, Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene 44:290-298.

Johnson, R.N., P.M. Ngumbi, J.P. Mwanyumba, C.R. Roberts. 1993. Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 7:216–218.

Johnson, RN; Lawyer, PG; Ngumbi, PM, et al. 1999. Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera : Psychodidae) seasonal distribution and infection rates in a defined focus of Leishmania tropica. American Journal of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene 60:854-858.


Channing A, and A. Schmitz. 2008. Hiding in plain sight: another cryptic dainty frog from the highlands of Kenya (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum). African Joutnal of Herprtology 57: 75-84


Laikipia in general

Denney, R.N. 1972.  Relationships of wildlife to livestock on some developed ranches on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya.  J. Range Management 25:415-425.

Karstad L; Thorsen J; Davies G, et al. 1977. Poxvirus Fibromas on African hares. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 13:245-247. (Suguroi River, 2200m)

Peden, D.G. 1987.  Livestock and wildlife population-distributions in relation to aridity and human populations in Kenya.  Journal of Range Management 40:67-71.

Mebrahtu, Y.B.. P.G. Lawyer, P.M. Ngumbi, et al. 1992. A new rural focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86:381-387

Johnson, R.N., P.M. Ngumbi, J.P. Mwanyumba & C.R. Roberts. 1993.  Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya.  Medical and Veterinary Entomology 7:216-218.

Johnson, R.N, P.M. Ngumbi, J.P. Mwanyumba, et al. 1993. Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Medical And Veterinary Entomology 7:216-

Sang, D.K, G.B.A. Okelo, C.W. Ndegwa, et al. 1993. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87:629-632

Michelmore F. (1994) Keeping elephants on the map: Case studies of the application of GIS for conservation. In: Mapping the Diversity of Nature: 107-125. Miller R.I. (Ed.). London: Chapman & Hall

Coombs, MD; Dunachie, SJ; Brooker, S, et al. 1997. Snake bites in Kenya: A preliminary survey of four areas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91:319-321.

Massamba, NN; Mutinga, MJ; Kamau, CC. 1998. Characterisation of Leishmania isolates from Laikipia District, Kenya. Acta Tropica 71:293-

Rwambo PM, Brodie SJ, DeMartini JC 2001. Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health and Production 33:471-487

Thenya T. 2001.  Challenges of conservation of dryland shallow waters, Ewaso Narok swamp, Laikipia District, Kenya.  Hydrobiologia 458: 107-119.

Thenya, T. 2001.  Birding in Ewaso Narok Swamp, Rumuruti, a dryland swamp.  Kenya Birds 9:5-9.

Njiru, ZK; Kamau, DL; Mwendia, CMT, et al. 2002. The impact of surra on camel husbandry: A pilot study in Laikipia district of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 9:139-144.

Chen H, Githeko AK, Zhou GF, Githure JI, Yan GY. 2006.  New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission.  Malaria Journal 5: Art. No. 17.

Cerling, T.E., P. Omondi, & A.N. Macharia. 2007. Diets of Kenyan elephants from stable isotopes and the origin of confiscated ivory in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:614–623.

Kindt, R., J.-P.B. Lillesø, & P. van Breugel. 2007. Comparisons between original and current composition of indigenous tree species around Mount Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:633–644.

Njiru, ZK; Constantine, CC. 2007. Population sub-structuring among Trypanosoma evansi stocks. Parasitology Research 101:1215-1224.
de Jong, Y.A., T.M. Butynski & K.A. Nekaris. 2008.  Distribution and conservation of the patas monkey Erythrocebus patas in Kenya.  Journal of East African Natural History 97:83–102.

Darlington JPEC, Benson RB, Cook CE, et al. 2008. Resolving relationships in some African fungus-growing termites (Termitidae, Macrotermitinae) using molecular phylogeny, morphology, and field parameters. Insectes Sociaux 55:256-265.

Kantai P. 2007.  In the grip of the vampire state: Maasai land struggles in Kenyan politics.  Journal of Eastern African Studies 1:107-122.

Ngeranwa, J.J.N., S.P. Shompole, E.H. Venter, A. Wambugu, J.E. Crafford, & B.L. Penzhorn. 2008. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 75:199-205.

Nyariki, D.M. 2009.Price response of herd off-take under market liberalization in a developing cattle sector: panel analysis applied to Kenya's ranching. Environment and Development Economics 14: 263-280.

Lengoiboni, M., A.K. Bregt, P. van der Molen. 2010. Pastoralism within land administration in Kenya- the missing link. Land Use Policy 27S: 579-588.

Heller R, Okello JBA, Siegismund H. 2010. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa. Molecular Ecology 19:1324-1334. 

Graham MD, Notter B, Adams WM, Lee PC, Ochieng TN. 2010. Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human-elephant conflict. Systematics and Biodiversity 8:435-445.

Lengoiboni, M., van der Molen, R., Bregt, A. K. 2011.  Pastoralism within the cadastral system: Seasonal interactions and access agreements between pastoralists and non-pastoralists in Northern Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments 75:477-486.


Hydrology, geography, and land use research in Laikipia

Kiteme, B., U. Wiesmann, E. Kinzi and J.M. Mathuva. 1998.  A highland-lowland system under transition pressure: a spatio-temporal analysis. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal 8S:45-53.

Wiesmann, U; Gichuki, FN; Kiteme, BP, et al. 2000. Mitigating conflicts over scarce water resources in the highland-lowland system of Mount Kenya. Mountain Research and Development 20:10-15.

Oteng'i, S.B.B., C.J. Stigter, J.K. Ng'ang'a and D.N. Mungai. 2000. Wind protection in a hedged agroforestry system in semiarid Kenya.  Agroforestry Systems 50:137-156.

Kiteme,  B.P. and J. Gikonyo. 2002. Preventing and resolving water use conflicts in the Mount Kenya highland-lowland system through water users' associations. Mountain Research and Development 22:332-337.

Wiesmann, U., F.N. Gichuki, B.P. Kiteme and H. Liniger. 2000.  Mitigating conflicts over scarce water resources in the highland-lowland system of Mount Kenya. Mountain Research and Development 20:10-15.

Gichuki FN. 2004.  Managing the externalities of declining dry season river flow: A case study from the Ewaso Ngiro North River Basin, Kenya. Water Resources Research 40(8): Art. No. W08S03.

Mungai DN, Ong CK, Kiteme B, Elkaduwa W, Sakthivadivel R. 2004.  Lessons from two long-term hydrological studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka.  Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 104:135-143.

Aeschbacher J, Liniger H, Weingartner R. 2005.  River water shortage in a highland-lowland system - A case study of the impacts of water abstraction in the Mount Kenya region. Mountain Research and Development 25:155-162.

Liniger H, Gikonyo J, Kiteme B, et al. 2005.  Assessing and managing scarce topical mountain water resources - The case of Mount Kenya and the semiarid Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Mountain Research and Development 25:163-173.

Ngigi SN, Savenije HHG, Rockstrom J, Gachene CK. 2005.  Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers' investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya.  Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 30:772-782.

Liniger H, Gikonyo J, Kiteme B, Wiesmann U. 2005. Assessing and managing scarce topical mountain water resources - The case of Mount Kenya and the semiarid Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Mountain Research and Development 25:163-173.

Ngigi SN, Rockstrom J, Savenije HHG. 2006.  Assessment of rainwater retention in agricultural land and crop yield increase due to conservation tillage in Ewaso Ng'iro river basin, Kenya.  Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 31:910-918.

Sekar, I and T.O. Randhir. 2007. Spatial assessment of conjunctive water harvesting potential in watershed systems. Journal of Hydrology 334: 39-52.

Notter B, MacMillan L, Viviroli D, Weingartner R, Liniger HP. 2007.  Impacts of environmental change on water resources in the Mt. Kenya region. Journal of Hydrology 343:266-278.

Ngigi SN, Savenije HHG, Gichuki FN. 2008. Hydrological Impacts of Flood Storage and Management on Irrigation Water Abstraction in Upper Ewaso Ng'iro River Basin, Kenya. Water Resources Management 22: 1859-1879.

Mutiga JK, Su ZB, Woldai T. 2010. Using satellite remote sensing to assess evapotranspiration: Case study of the upper Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin, Kenya. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 12: S100-S108  

Mutisya DK, Tole M. 2010. The Impact of Irrigated Agriculture on Water Quality of Rivers Kongoni and Sirimon, Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin, Kenya. Water Air and Soil Pollution 213: 145-149.


Holtzman J. 2007.  Eating time: Capitalist history and pastoralist history among Samburu herders in northern Kenya.  Journal of Eastern African Studies 1:436-448.


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