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Truman P. Young - Professor and Restoration Ecologist


(downloads of recent papers available at:

Regular Publications

Riginos, C. L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen and T.P. Young. Herbivory and drought generate short-term stochasticity and long-term stability in a savanna understory community. Ecological Applications, revision in review.

Keesing, F., R.S. Richard S. Ostfeld, T.P. Young, and B.F. Allan. Cattle and rainfall affect tick abundance in central Kenya. Parasitology, in press.

Young, T.P., K.L. Stuble, K.L., J.A. Balachowski, and C.M. Werner. 2017. Using priority effects to manipulate competitive relationships in restoration. Restoration Ecology, online early.

Young, T.P., K.L. Stuble, J.A. Balachowski, M.E. Lulow and K. Wolf.2017. Approaches to addressing climate change challenges in restoration. Grasslands 27:10-15.

Kimuyu, D.M., R.L. Sensenig, R.M. Chira, J.M. Githaiga, and T.P. Young. 2017. Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem. International Journal of Wildland Fire 26:287-295.

Stuble, K, K.J. Vaughn, E.P. Zefferman, K.M. Wolf, and T.P. Young. 2017. Outside the envelope: rare events disrupt the relationship between climate factors and species interactions. Ecology 98:1623-1630.

Sensenig, R.L., D.K. Kimuyu, J.C. Ruiz Guajardo, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young.2017. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species. Ecology 98:1455-1464.

Stuble, K.L., S.E. Fick and T.P. Young. 2017. Every restoration is unique: testing year effects and site effects as determinants of initial restoration trajectories. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:1051–1057.

Kimuyu, D.M., K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, R.M. Chira, J.M. Githaiga, and T.P. Young. 2017. Influence of cattle on grazing and browsing wildlife varies with season and presence of megaherbivores. Ecological Applications 27:786–798

Palmer, T.M. and T.P. Young. 2017.Integrating ecological complexity into our understanding of ant-plant mutualism: ant-acacia interactions in African savannas. Pp. 200-222 in: Oliveira, P.S. and Koptur, S., eds. Ant-Plant Interactions: Impacts of Humans on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Odadi, W.O., D.M. Kimuyu, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen and T.P. Young. 2017. Fire triggers negative responses of cattle to shared foraging with African native ungulates. Journal of Applied Ecology 54: 935–944. (Editor’s Choice)

Charles, G., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2017. Effects of different large herbivores on above-ground net primary productivity: grazing intensity affects the mean, but herbivore identity affects variability. Ecological Applications 27:143-155.

Sprenkle-Hyppolite, S.D., A.M. Latimer, & T.P. Young. 2016. Landscape factors and restoration practices associated with initial reforestation success in Haiti. Ecological Restoration 34:306-316..

Welch, K., H. Safford and T.P. Young. 2016. Variables affecting postfire tree regeneration in middle elevation conifer forests, California, USA.  Ecosphere. Ecosphere 7:e01609.

Porensky, L.M. and T.P. Young. 2016. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type. Landscape Ecology 31:1663–1680.

Pringle, R.M., K. Prior, T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young, and J. Goheen. 2016. Large herbivores promote habitat specialization and beta diversity of African savanna trees. Ecology 97:2640-2657.

Werner, C.M., K.J. Vaughn, K.L. Stuble, K. Wolf, and T.P. Young. 2016. Persistent asymmetrical priority effects in a California grassland restoration experiment. Ecological Applications 26:1624-1632. pdf

Veblen, K.E., L.M. Porensky, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2016. Are cattle surrogate wildlife? Savanna plant community composition explained by total herbivory more than herbivore type. Ecological Applications 26: 1610-1623. pdf

Aslan, C., J. Bronstein, H.S. Rogers, K. Gedan, J. Brodie, T.M. Palmer and T.P. Young. 2016. Leveraging nature’s backup plans: species interactions and resilience in restoration. Restoration Ecology 24:434-440. pdf

Wolf, K.M. and T.P. Young. 2016. Summer watering at restored native grassland sites flushes an annual exotic seed bank but fails to increase native perennial cover. Ecosphere 7:e01309. pdf

Pringle, R.M., D. Kimuyu, R.L. Sensenig, T.M. Palmer, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen and T.P. Young. 2015. Synergistic indirect effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:1637–1645. pdf

Zefferman, E.M, J. Stevens, G. Charles, M.D. Dunbar, T. Emam, S. Fick, L.V. Morales, K. Wolf, D.N. Young, and T.P. Young. 2015. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations. AoB PLANTS 7:plv056. pdf

Young, D.N., L.M. Porensky, K. Wolf, S. Fick,and T.P. Young. 2015. Burning reveals cryptic plant diversity and promotes coexistence in a California prairie restoration experiment. Ecosphere 6:81. pdf

Young, T.P. and K.E. Veblen. 2015. Strong recruitment from sparse plug plantings of native California bunchgrasses. Grasslands 25:9-11. pdf

Ngatia, L.W., B.L. Turner, J.T. Njoka, T.P. Young, and K.R. Reddy. 2015. The effects of herbivory and nutrients on plant biomass and carbon storage in vertisols of an East African savanna. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 208:55–63. pdf

Vaughn, K.J. & T.P. Young. 2015. Short-term priority over invasive exotics increases the establishment and persistence of California native perennial grasses. Ecological Applications 25:791-799. pdf

Young, H.S., D.J. McCauley, R. Dirzo, J.R. Goheen, B. Agwanda, E.O. Castillo, A. Ferguson, S.N. Kinyua, M. McDonough, T.M. Palmer, R.M. Pringle, T.P. Young, and K.M. Helgen. 2015. Context-dependent effects of large mammals declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 25:348-360. pdf

Young, T.P., E.M. Zefferman, K.J. Vaughn & S. Fick. 2015. Initial success of native grasses is contingent on interacting annual grass competition, temporal priority, rainfall, and site effects. AoB PLANTS 7:plu081. pdf

Wilkerson, M.L., K.L. Ward, N.M. Williams, K.S. Ullmann, and T.P. Young. 2014. Diminishing returns from higher density restoration seedings suggest tradeoffs in pollinator seed mixes. Restoration Ecology 22:782-789. pdf

Young, H. S., R. Dirzo, K. M. Helgen, D. J. McCauley, S. Billeter, M. Kosoy, L. Osikowicz, T. P. Young, and K. Dittmar. 2014. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease in Africa. 2014. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:7036-7041. pdf

Keesing, F. and T.P. Young. 2014. Cascading consequences of the loss of large mammals in an African savanna. Bioscience 64:487-405. pdf

Kimuyu, D.K., R.L. Sensenig, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen and T.P. Young. 2014. Wild and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 24:741-749. pdf See video of the burns here.

Wilkerson, M.L., L.M. Roche, & T.P. Young. 2013. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna. Ecology and Evolution 3:3672-3682. pdf

Kirigia, A., J.T. Njoka, P.I.D Kinyua & T.P. Young.2013. Characterization of livestock manure market and the annual income contribution of manure trade in Mukogodo, Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8:5864-5871. pdf

Keesing, F., B.F. Allan, T.P. Young, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2013. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 23: 1410–1418. pdf

Veblen, K.E., L.M. Porensky and T.P. Young. 2013. Ecological Restoration. Encyclopeadia Brittanica online (accepted).

Porensky, L.M., S.E. Wittman, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2013. Herbivory and drought interact to enhance diversity and spatial patterning in a savanna understory. Oecologia 173:591-602. pdf

Young, H.S., D.J. McCauley, K.M. Helgen, E. Castillo, J.R. Goheen, T.M. Palmer, R.M. Pringle, T.P. Young, and R. Dirzo. 2013. Responses of plant communities to experimental removals of and anthropogenic declines in large mammalian herbivores. Journal of Ecology 101:1030-1041. pdf

Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.S. Lemboi, J.R. Goheen & R.M. Pringle. 2013. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants. Ecology 94:1531-1539. pdf

Porensky, L.M. & T.P. Young. 2013. Edge interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes. 2013. Conservation Biology 27:509-519. pdf

Porensky, L.M., S.F. Bucher, K.E. Veblen, A.C. Treydte, and T.P. Young. 2013. Megaherbivores and cattle alter edge effects around ecosystem hotspots in an African savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 96:55-63. pdf

Odadi, W.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, M.M. Karachi, & T.P. Young. 2013. Protein supplementation-driven shifts in forage selection by cattle: implications for cattle wildlife coexistence. Ecological Applications 23:455-463. pdf

Isbell, L.A., T.P. Young, and A.H. Harcourt. 2012. Stag parties linger: continued gender bias in a female-rich scientific discipline.  PLoS ONE 7(11):e49682. pdf

Lulow, M.E. and T.P. Young. 2012. Is there still native diversity in California grasslands? Fremontia 39(2/3):6-11. pdf

Riginos, R., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen, W.O. Odadi, R.L. Sensenig, F. Keesing, D. Kimuyu, M.L. Wilkerson, and T.P. Young.  2012. Lessons on the relationship between pastoralism and biodiversity from the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE). Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2012 2:10. Link or pdf

Porensky, L.M., K.J. Vaughn & T.P. Young. 2012. Can initial intraspecific spatial aggregation increase multi-year diversity by creating temporal priority? Ecological Applications 22:927-936. pdf

Odadi, W.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, M.M. Karachi, & T.P. Young. 2011. African wild ungulates compete with or facilitate cattle depending on season.  Science 333:1753-1755. pdf (Supplementary material) NPR interview

Maclean, J.E., J.R. Goheen, D.F. Doak, T.M. Palmer & T.P. Young. 2011. Cryptic herbivores mediate the strength and form of ungulate impacts on a long-lived savanna tree. Ecology 92:1626–1636. pdf

Vaughn, K.J., C. Biel, F. de Herralde, X. Aranda, J.J. Clary, R.Y. Evans, T.P. Young & R. Savé. 2011. California perennial grasses are physiologically distinct from both Mediterranean annual and perennial grasses. Plant & Soil 345:37-46. pdf

Augustine, D.J., K.E. Veblen, J.R. Goheen, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2011. Pathways for positive cattle-wildlife interactions in semi-arid rangelands. Conserving Wildlife in African Landscapes: Kenya’s Ewaso Ecosystem. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 632:55-71. pdf

Holmes, K.A., K.E. Veblen, A.M. Berry & T.P. Young. 2011. Effects of prescribed fires on planted valley oak saplings at a research restoration site in the Sacramento Valley.  Restoration Ecology 19:118-125. pdf

Young, T.P. & K.J. Vaughn. 2011. Restoration. Pp. 594-597 in Encyclopedia of Biological Invasivions.  D. Simberlof & M. Rejmanek (eds.), University of California Press. pdf

Palmer, T.M., D.F. Doak, M.L. Stanton, J.L. Bronstein, E.T. Kiers, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen & R.M. Pringle. 2010. Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism. PNAS 107:17234-17239. pdf See also this.

Vaughn, K.J., L.M. Porensky, M.L. Wilkerson, J. Balachowski, E. Peffer, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2010. Restoration Ecology. Nature Education Knowledge 1(8):66. web link

Young, T.P. Semelparity and Iteroparity.2010.  Nature Education Knowledge 1(9):2. web link

Vaughn, K.J. & T.P. Young. 2010. Contingent conclusions: year effects influence the results of ecological field experiments, but temporal replication is rare. Restoration Ecology 18S1:59-64. pdf

Kinyua, D.M., L.E. McGeoch, N. Georgiadis, & T.P. Young. 2010. Short-term and long-term effects of tilling, fertilization, and seeding on the restoration of a tropical rangeland.  Restoration Ecology 18S1:226-233. pdf

Palmerlee, A.P. & T.P. Young. 2010 Direct seeding is more cost-effective than planting container stock across ten woody species in California. Native Plants Journal 11:89-102. pdf

Veblen K.E. & T.P. Young. 2010. Contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife on the vegetation development of a savanna landscape mosaic.  Journal of Ecology 98:993-1001. pdf

Erwin, T.L. & T.P. Young. 2010. A native besieged: the effects of non-native frugivores and ground vegetation on fruit removal in a highly endangered Hawaiian shrub, Delissea kauaiensis. Pacific Science 64:33-43. pdf

Young, T.P. & E. Peffer. 2010. “Recalcitrant understory layers” revisited: arrested succession and the long life spans of clonal mid-successional species.  Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40:1184-1188. pdf

Goheen, J.R., T.M. Palmer, F. Keesing, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2010. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.  Journal of Animal Ecology 79:372-382. pdf

Riginos, C., Grace, J.B., D.J. Augustine, & T.P. Young. 2009. Local versus landscape-scale effects of savanna trees on grasses. Journal of Ecology 97:1337-1345. pdf

Lulow, M.E. and T. P. Young. 2009. High native forb richness in Central Valley “grassland” sites in the western Sacramento Valley and adjacent foothills. Grasslands 14(3):7-11. pdf

Odadi, W.O., T.P. Young, & J.B. Okeyo-Owuor. 2009. The effects of wild herbivores on cattle intake and movement rates in Laikipia rangeland, Kenya. Journal of Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116:120-125. pdf

Isbell, L.A. T.P. Young, K.E. Jaffe, A.A. Carlson, & R.L. Chancellor. 2009. Demography and life history of sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Laikipia, Kenya. International Journal of Primatology 30:103-124. pdf

Veblen, K.E. & T.P. Young.  2009. The alkali specialist Hemizonia pungens spp. pungens does not prefer alkali soils. Journal of Vegetation Science 20:170-176. pdf

Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen, R.M Pringle & R. Karban. 2008. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism following the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna.  Science 319:192-195 . pdf See also this.

Okello, B.D., T.P. Young, C. Riginos, D. Kelly & T. O'Connor. 2008. Short-term survival and long-term mortality of Acacia drepanolobium after a controlled burn in Laikipia, Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology 46:395-401. pdf

Infalt, S.B. & T.P. Young. 2008. Forest restoration of campsites at Kings Canyon National Park, California.  Ecological Restoration 26:302-310. pdf

Ingolia, M., T.P. Young & E.G. Sutter. 2008. Germination ecology of Rorippa subumbellata (Tahoe yellow cress), an endangered, endemic species of Lake Tahoe.  Seed Science and Technology, 36:621-632. pdf

McCauley, D.J., F. Keesing, T.P. Young & K.Dittmar. 2008. Effects of the removal of large herbivores on fleas of small mammals. Journal of Vector Ecology 33:263-268. pdf

Holmes, K.A., K.E. Veblen, T.P. Young, & A.M. Berry. 2008. California oaks and fire: a review and case study. Pages 551-565 in: Merenlender, A., D. McCreary, and K.L. Purcell, eds. Proceedings of the Sixth California Oak Symposium: Today's Challenges, Tomorrow's Opportunities. 2006, October 9-12. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-217. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. 699 pp. pdf.

Ogada, D., M.E. Gadd, R.S. Ostfeld, T.P. Young & F. Keesing. 2008. Impacts of large herbivores on bird diversity and abundance in an African savanna. Oecologia 156:387-397. pdf

Off, E.C., L.A. Isbell & T.P. Young. 2008. Population density and habitat preferences of the Kenya Lesser Galago (Galago senegalensis braccatus) along the Ewaso Nyiro River, Laikipia, Kenya.  Journal East African Natural History 97:109-116. pdf

Okello, B.D., T.P. Young, C. Riginos, D. Kelly & T. O'Connor. 2008. Short-term survival and long-term mortality of Acacia drepanolobium after a controlled burn in Laikipia, Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology, in press. pdf

Isbell, L.A. & T. P. Young. 2007. Interspecific and temporal variation in domatia contents of the ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium, a staple food for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.  American Journal of Primatology 69:1387-1398. pdf

Riginos, C. & T.P. Young. 2007. Positive and negative effects of grasses and wild and domestic herbivores on Acacia saplings. Oecologia 153:985-995. pdf

Odadi, W., T.P. Young, & J. Okeyo-Owuor. 2007. The effects of wild herbivores on cattle diet in Laikipia rangeland, Kenya.  Rangeland Ecology and Management 60:179-185. pdf

Lulow, M.E., T.P. Young, J.L. Wirka, & J.H. Anderson. 2007. Variation in the initial success of seeded native bunchgrasses in the rangeland foothills of Yolo County, California.  Ecological Restoration 25:20-28. pdf

Veblen, K.E., K.A. Holmes, & T.P. Young. 2007. Most one-year-old grass plugs survive controlled burns.  Ecological Restoration 25:50-51. pdf

Pringle, R.M., T.P. Young, D.I. Rubenstein, & D.J. McCauley. 2007. Primary productivity and the strength of herbivore-initiated interaction cascades. PNAS 104:193-197. pdf

Stromberg, M., T.P. Young, J. Wirka & P. Kephart. 2007. California Grassland Restoration.  Pp. 254-280 in: Stromberg, M., J.D. Corbin, and C.M. D’Antonio (eds). Ecology and Management of California Grasslands. University of California Press, Berkeley. pdf

Young, T.P. & D.J. Augustine. 2007. Interspecific variation in the effects of large mammalian herbivores on reproduction in Acacia species in Laikipia, Kenya.  Biotropica 39:559-561. pdf

Dawson, K., T.P. Young & K.E. Veblen. 2007. Alkali ecotypes in an invasive annual grass, Lolium multiflorumBiological Invasions 9:327-234. pdf

Goheen, J.R., T.P. Young, F. Keesing & T.M. Palmer. 2007. Consequences of herbivory by native ungulates for reproduction of a savanna tree. Journal of Ecology 95:129-138. pdf

McCauley, D.J., F. Keesing, T.P. Young, J. Peters & B.F. Allan. 2006. Indirect effects of large herbivorous mammals on snakes in an African savanna.  Ecology 87:2657-2663. pdf

Young, T.P. 2006.  Declining rural economies and the future of biodiversity: missing the forest for the trees?  Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy 9:319-138 . pdf

Deering R.H. & T.P. Young. 2006. Germination speeds of exotic annual and native perennial grasses in California, and the potential benefits of seed priming for grassland restoration.  Grasslands 15:1,14-15. pdf

Young, T.P., D.A. Petersen & J.J. Clary. 2005. The ecology of restoration: historical links, emerging issues, and unexplored realms.   Ecology Letters 8:662-673 . pdf

Warui, C.M., M.H. Villet, T.P. Young & R. Jocqué. 2005. Influence of grazing by large mammals on the spider community of a Kenyan savanna biome. Journal of Arachnology 33:269-279.  pdf

Stanton, M.L, T.M. Palmer & T.P. Young. 2005. Ecological barriers to early colony establishment in three coexisting acacia ant species in Kenya. Insectes Sociaux 52:393-401. pdf

Huddleston, R.T & T.P. Young. 2005. The effects of weed control and soil amendments on exotic species and planted native grasses in an Oregon grassland.   Western North American Naturalist 65:507-515. pdf

Lesica, P. & T.P. Young. 2005.  Demographic model explains life history evolution in Arabis fecunda.   Functional Ecology 19:471-477.  pdf

Kostel-Hughes, F., T.P. Young & J.D. Weir. 2005.   Emergence and seedling growth of native and non-native trees species in response to leaf litter depth.   Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132:50-61. pdf

Young, T.P. & R.Y. Evans. 2005. Effects of containers and irrigation regimes on initial seedling survival and growth in Valley Oak (Quercus lobata). Native Plants Journal 6:83-90. pdf

Young, T.P., T.M. Palmer & M.E. Gadd. 2005.   Competition and compensation among cattle, zebras, and elephants in a semi-arid savanna in Laikipia, Kenya.   Biological Conservation 122:351-359. pdf

Warui, C. M., M.H. Villet, & T.P. Young. 2004.   Spiders (Araneae) from black cotton soils of a highland savanna in Laikipia, central Kenya.   Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 1:13-24. pdf

Huntzinger, P.M., R. Karban, T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2004. Relaxation of induced indirect defenses of acacias following removal of mammalian herbivores. Ecology 85:609-614. pdf

Young, T.P. 2004. Fire-induced reproduction of Festuca pilgeri in the subalpine zone of Mount Kenya.   African Journal of Ecology 42:235-236. pdf

Huddleston, R.T & T.P. Young. 2004.   Spacing and competition between planted grass plugs and pre-existing perennial grasses.   Restoration Ecology 12:546-551. pdf

Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, & T.P. Young.   2003.   Competition and coexistence: exploring the mechanisms that restrict and maintain diversity within mutualist guilds. American Naturalist 161:S63-S79. pdf

Young, H.J. & T.P. Young. 2003. Teaching evolutionary change. American Biology Teacher 65:444-448. pdf

Young, T.P., M.L. Stanton & C. Christian. 2003. Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Oikos 101:171-179. pdf

Ward, D. & T.P. Young. 2002. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:913-929. pdf

Young, T. P. 2002. The Poppy Paradox and a novel derivation for the demographic conditions favoring the evolution of semelparity. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 83:121-123. pdf

Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young. 2002. Ecological models of female social relationships in primates: similarities, disparities, and some directions for future clarity. Behaviour 139:177-202. pdf

Stanton, M.L, T.M. Palmer , and T.P. Young. 2002. Competition-colonization tradeoffs in a guild of African acacia-ants. Ecological Monographs 72:347-363. pdf

Palmer, T.M., T.P. Young & M.L. Stanton. 2002. Burning bridges: priority effects and the persistence of a competitively subordinate acacia-ant in Laikipia, Kenya. Oecologia 133:372-379. pdf

Okello, B.D., T.G. O’Connor, & T.P. Young. 2001. Growth, biomass estimates, and charcoal production of Acacia drepanolobium in Laikipia, Kenya. Forest Ecology & Management 142:143-153. pdf

Young, T.P., J.M Chase & R.T. Huddleston. 2001. Community succession and assembly-- comparing, contrasting and combining paradigms in the context of ecological restoration. Ecological Restoration 19:5-18. pdf

Hobbs, T. and T.P. Young. 2001. Growing Valley Oak. Ecological Restoration 19:165-171. pdf

Gadd, M.E., T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2001. Effects of simulated shoot and leaf herbivory in Acacia drepanolobium. Oikos 92:515-520. pdf

Young, T.P. & R.Y Evans. 2001. Container stock versus direct seeding for woody species in restoration sites. Comb. Proc. Intl Plant Propagation Soc. (2000) 50: 577-582. pdf

Young, T.P. 2000. Restoration ecology and conservation biology. Biological Conservation 92:73-83. pdf

Palmer, T.M., T.P. Young, M.L. Stanton and E. Wenk. 2000. Short-term dynamics of an acacia ant community. Oecologia 123:245-235. pdf

Ostro, L.E.T., T.P. Young, S.C. Silver, F.W. Koontz. 2000. Habitat selection by translocated howler monkeys in Belize. Animal Conservation 3: 175-181. pdf

Okello, D.N. & T.P. Young. 2000. Effects of fire, bruchid beetles and soil type on the germination and seedling establishment of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 17:46-51. pdf

Stanton, M.L. and T.P. Young. 1999. Thorny relationships. Natural History 1999 (11):28-31.

Stanton, M.L., T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young, A. Evans & M.L. Turner. 1999. Sterilization and canopy modification of a swollen thorn acacia tree by a plant-ant. Nature 401:578-581. pdf

Isbell, L.A., J. Pruetz & M. Lewis, T.P. Young. 1999. Rank differences in ecological behavior: a comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops). International Journal of Primatology 20:257-272. pdf

Isbell, L.A., J. Pruetz, B.M. Nzuma, and T.P. Young. 1999. Comparing measures of daily travel distance in primates: methodological considerations and socioecological implications. American Journal of Primatology 48:87-98. pdf

Ostro, L., T.P. Young, S.C. Silver, and F.W. Koontz. 1999. A geographic information system (GIS) method for estimating home-range size. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:748-755. pdf

Ostro, L.E.T., S.C. Silver, F.W. Koontz, T.P. Young and R. H. Horwich. 1999. Ranging behavior of translocated and established groups of black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra in Belize, Central America. Biological Conservation 87:181-190. pdf

Kostel-Hughes, F., T.P. Young, and M.M. Carreiro. 1998. Forest leaf litter quantity and seedling occurrence along an urban-rural gradient. Urban Ecosystems 2:263-278. pdf

Kostel-Hughes, F., T.P. Young & M.J. McDonnell. 1998. The soil seed bank and its relationship to the aboveground vegetation in deciduous forests in New York City. Urban Ecosystems 2:43-59. pdf

Young, T.P. & F. Chan. 1998. Establishment of deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens) at a restoration site, and its prospects for woody plant suppression in transmission rights of way. Grasslands 8(3):3-10.

Young, T.P., B. Okello, D. Kinyua, and T.P. Palmer. 1998. KLEE: a long-term, large scale herbivore exclusion experiment in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 14:94-102. pdf

Young, T. P. & B.N. Okello. 1998. Relaxation of an induced defense after exclusion of herbivores: spine length in Acacia drepanolobium. Oecologia 115:508-513. pdf

Isbell L.A., J. Pruetz, & T.P. Young. 1998. Locomotor activities of sympatric vervet and patas monkeys: implications for hominid hindlimb evolution. Am. J. Physical Anthropology 105:199-207. pdf

Isbell, L.A., J. Pruetz and T.P. Young. 1998. Movements of vervet and patas monkeys as estimators of food resource site, density, and distribution. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 42:123-133. pdf

Russo, C. & T.P. Young. 1997. Egg and seed removal at urban and suburban forest edges. Urban Ecosystems 1:171-178. pdf

Young, T.P., C.H. Stubblefield & L.A. Isbell. 1997. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple system. Oecologia 109:98-107. pdf

Young, T.P. 1996. Little Criminals. Natural History Magazine. Featured as a "Pick from the past"

Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young. 1996. The evolution of bipedalism in hominids and reduced group size in chimpanzees: alternative responses to decreasing resource availability. Journal of Human Evolution 30:289-297. pdf

Mangel, M. et al. 1996. Principles for the conservation of wild living resources. Ecological Applications 6:338-362. pdf

McClanahan, T.R. & T.P. Young (eds.) 1996. East African Ecosystems and their Conservation, Oxford University Press, New York. (Including co-authorship of the Introduction and authorship of the Summary)

Young, T.P. 1996. High mountain and afroalpine ecosystems. Pages 401-424 in: T.R. McClanahan & T.P. Young (eds.) East African Ecosystems and their Conservation, Oxford University Press, New York.

Mwasya, J., T.P. Young & D.N. Okebiro. 1995. Plant checklist and vegetation map of Ol Ari Nyiro and the Mukutan Gorge, Laikipia, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 83:143-197. pdf

Young, T.P., N. Patridge & A. Macrae. 1995. Long-term glades in acacia bushland and their edge effects in Laikipia, Kenya. Ecological Applications 5: 97-108. pdf

Young, T.P. 1995. Landscape mosaics created by canopy gaps, forest edges and bushland glades. Selbyana 16:127-134. pdf

Young. T.P. & A.P. Smith. 1994. Alpine herbivory on Mount Kenya. 219-235 in: Tropical Alpine Environments: Plant Form and Function. P.W. Rundel, A.P. Smith & F.C. Meinzer, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Smith, A.P. & T.P. Young. 1994. Population biology of Senecio keniodendron (Compositae), an giant African rosette species. Pages 273-293 in: Tropical Alpine Environments: Plant Form and Function. P.W. Rundel, A.P. Smith & F.C. Meinzer, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Young, T.P. 1994. Population Biology of Mount Kenya Lobelias. Pages 251-272 in: Tropical Alpine Environments: Plant Form and Function. P.W. Rundel, A.P. Smith & F.C. Meinzer, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Oloo, T., R. Brett & T.P. Young. 1994. Seasonal variation in feeding ecology of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis L.) in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 32: 142-157. pdf

Young, T.P. & L.A. Isbell. 1994. Minimum group size and other conservation lessons exemplified in a naturally declining primate population. Biological Conservation 68: 129-134. pdf

Young, T.P. 1994. Natural die-offs of large mammals: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 8: 410-418. pdf

Young, T.P. & V. Perkocha. 1994. Treefalls, crown asymmetry and buttresses. Journal of Ecology 82: 319-324. pdf

Young, T.P. & M.E. Evans. 1993. Alpine vertebrates of Mount Kenya, with particular notes on the rock hyrax. Journal of the East African Natural History Society, 82(202): 54-79. pdf

Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young. 1993. Social and ecological influences on activity budgets of vervet monkeys, and their implications for group living. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 32: 377-385. pdf

Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young. 1993. Human presence reduces leopard predation in a free-ranging population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Animal Behaviour 45: 1233-1235. pdf

Madden, D. & T.P. Young. 1992. Symbiotic ants as an alternative defense against giraffe herbivory in spinescent Acacia drepanolobium. Oecologia 91: 235-238. pdf

Ginsberg, J.R. & T.P. Young. 1992. Measuring association between individuals and groups in behavioural studies. Animal Behaviour 44: 377-379. pdf

Young, T.P. & M.M. Peacock. 1992. Giant senecios and the alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya. Journal of Ecology 80: 141-148. pdf

Young, H.J. & T.P. Young. 1992. Alternative outcomes of natural and experimental high pollen loads. Ecology 73: 639-647. pdf

Young, T.P. 1991. The flora, fauna, and ecology of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. Pp. 37-49 in: Guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro(4th ed.), I.A. Allen, ed. Mountain Club of Kenya, Nairobi.

Young, T.P. & C. Francombe. 1991. Growth and yield estimates in natural stands of leleshwa (Tarconanthus camphoratus). Forest Ecology and Management 41: 309-321. pdf

Milewski, A.V., T.P. Young & D. Madden. 1991. Thorns as induced defenses: experimental evidence. Oecologia 86: 70-75. pdf

Young, T.P. & L.A. Isbell. 1991. Sex differences in giraffe feeding ecology: energetic and social constraints. Ethology 87: 79-89. pdf

Young, T.P. & S.P. Hubbell. 1991. Crown asymmetry, treefalls, and the repeat disturbance of broad-leaved forest gaps. Ecology 72: 1464-1471. pdf

Young, T.P. & C.K. Augspurger. 1991. Ecology and evolution of long-lived semelparous plants. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 6: 285-289. pdf

Young, T.P. 1990. Mount Kenya forests: an ecological frontier. Geographica Bernensia, African Studies Series A8: 197-205.

Young, T.P. 1990. The evolution of semelparity in Mount Kenya lobelias. Evolutionary Ecology 4: 157-171. pdf

Young, T.P. & W.K. Lindsay. 1988. Role of even-aged population structure in the disappearance of Acacia xanthophloea woodlands. African Journal of Ecology 26:69-72. pdf

Young, T.P. 1987. Increased thorn length in Acacia drepanolobium- an induced response to browsing. Oecologia 71: 436-438. pdf

Smith, A.P. & T.P. Young. 1987. Tropical alpine plant ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18: 137-158. pdf

Young, T.P. & S.V.O. Robe. 1986. Micro-environmental role of a secreted aqueous solution in afro-alpine Lobelia keniensis. Biotropica 18: 267-269. pdf

Young, T.P. & M.M. Peacock. 1985. Vegetative key to the alpine vascular plants of Mount Kenya. Journal of the East African Natural History Society 185: 1-9. pdf

Young, T.P. 1985. Lobelia telekii herbivory, mortality, and size at reproduction: variation with growth rate. Ecology 66: 1879-1883. pdf

Young, T.P. 1984. Kenya's alpine and high forest ecosystems. Pp 119-137 in: Endangered Resources for Development, V.C. Gilbert, ed. National Environment and Human Settlements Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya.

Mulkey, S.S., A.P. Smith, & T.P. Young. 1984. Predation by elephants of Senecio keniodendron in the alpine zone of Mount Kenya. Biotropica 16: 246-248. pdf

Young, T.P. 1984. Solar irradiation increases floral development rates in afro-alpine Lobelia telekii. Biotropica 16: 243-245. pdf

Young, T.P. 1984. Comparative demography of semelparous Lobelia telekii and iteroparous Lobelia keniensis on Mount Kenya. Journal of Ecology 72: 637-650. pdf

Young, H.J. & T.P. Young. 1983. Local distribution of C3 and C4 grasses on Mount Kenya. Oecologia 58:3 73-377. pdf

Young, T.P. 1982. Bird visitation, seed set, and germination rates in two Lobelia species on Mount Kenya. Ecology 68: 1983-1986. pdf

Smith, A.P. & T.P. Young. 1982. The cost of reproduction in Senecio keniodendron, a giant rosette plant of Mount Kenya. Oecologia 55: 243-247. pdf

Young, T.P. 1981. A general model of comparative fecundity for semelparous and iteroparous life histories. American Naturalist 118: 27-36. pdf


Notes, reviews, etc.

Young, T.P., R.L. Sensenig, D.M. Kimuyu, C. Riginos, and K.E. Veblen. 2014. KLEE Corner #18: Wildlife and livestock reduce fire intensity. Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  July Issue

Young, T.P. 2014. Happy 20th, Mpala! Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue, pp. 8-9.

Young, T.P., R.L. Sensenig and D.M. Kimuyu. 2013. KLEE Corner #17: Controlled burns in KLEE: is fire a bane or a boon? Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  July Issue, pg. 7.

Young, T.P. 2013. Fire in the belly. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue, pp. 1,8.

Young, T.P. 2013. Restoration Ecology: The New Frontier 2nd Ed. by Van Andel and J. Aronson. Restoration Ecology 21:526 (book review).

Young, T.P. 2013. Ecological Restoration, by Galatowitsch, S.M. Ecological Restoration 31: 424-425 (book review).

Young, T.P.2012. Introduction to Restoration Ecology, by Howell, E.A., J.A. Harrington, and S.B. Glass. Ecological Restoration 30:426 (book review).

Young, T.P. and M. Kinnaird. 2012. Mpala Memories, Part 10- Schwarzenberg II. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January issue, pp. 2,8

Young, T.P. and M. Kinnaird. 2011. Mpala Memories, Part 9- Schwarzenberg I. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) October issue, pp. 3, 12.

Porensky, L.M. and T.P. Young, T.P. 2011. KLEE Corner #16: Megaherbivores and cattle impact trees and wildlife use in areas around old boma sites. Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  June Issue, in press.

Young, T.P. 2011. Mpala Memories, Part 7- Animal (and plant) changes over the years. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January issue, pp. 6-7, 12.

Veblen, K.E. and T.P. Young, T.P. 2011. KLEE Corner #15: Plants helping plants in defense against cattle and wildlife. Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue, pg. 11.

Young, T.P. 2010. Mpala Memories, Part 6- Early MRC research and scientists (1995-1999). Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) October issue, pp 7,13.

Young, T.P. 2010. Mpala Memories, Part 5- The Centre’s early days, 1995-1998.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) July issue, pp 8,13.

Young, T.P., D. Kinyua, and L. McGeoch. 2010. KLEE Corner #14: How do we restore degraded rangeland? Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  June Issue, pg. 10.Young, T.P. 2010. Mpala Memories, Part 4- Life in the Young/Isbell camp, 1992-1995.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue pg. 7,10.

Young, T.P. and R.Y. Sensenig. 2010. KLEE Corner #13: Elephants and fire together reduce woody cover more than either alone. Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue, pp. 12-13.

Young, T.P. 2010. Mpala Memories, Part 3- Establishing the first research camp, 1992.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January issue pg. 7.

Young, T.P. 2009. Mpala Memories, Part 2- The reconnaissance report.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) December Issue pg. 8.

Young, T.P. 2009. Mpala Memories, Part 1- Alan P. Smith.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) July Issue pg. 7.

Young, T.P. 2009. Five more years of funding for the KLEE project.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January Issue pg. 3.

Wilkerson, M.L. and T.P. Young. 2008. Butterflies and blooms: contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife. (“KLEE Corner” #10). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  May Issue.

Young, T.P. and C. Riginos. 2008. Cattle do compete with wildlife in Laikipia, even if they are “compatible”. (“KLEE Corner” #9). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue.

Young, T.P. and J.R. Goheen. 2006.  Whistling thorn recruitment is affected in unexpected ways by large mammals. (“KLEE Corner” #6). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue, page 10.

Young, T.P.  2005.  Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology, by V.K. Temperton et al.   Journal of Environmental Management 32:98-99 (book review).

Young, T.P. 2005. The pathology of no herbivory: long-term effects of herbivore exclusion in an African savanna. ("KLEE Corner" #5) . Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.   March/April Issue.

Young, T.P.  2005. Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology, by K. Temperton et al. Environmental Conservation 32:98-99 (book review). pdf

Young, T.P. 2004. Do elephants lessen competition between cattle and zebras? ("KLEE Corner" #4) . Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.   November Issue.

Young, T.P. 2004. Plants fight back. ("KLEE Corner" #3) . Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.   May Issue.

(Young. T.P. & D. Johnson.) 2003/4. Restoration.   Noxious Times 5(4):10.

Young, T.P. 2003.   Rodents take advantage of the absence of large mammals ("KLEE Corner" #2) . Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.   November Issue

Young, T.P. 2003.   KLEE: the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment ("KLEE Corner" #1). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.    March/April Issue.

Young, T.P., S. Talbot & W. Wamiti. 2003. Checklist of the birds of Mpala/Segera. 8 pp.

Young, T.P. 2003. KLEE: the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment. Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter (“KLEE Corner”). March/April Issue.

Young, T.P., D.L. Immel and J.J. Clary. 2003. Historical Ecology, by Egan & Howell. Journal of Environmental Management 68:437-8 (book review). pdf

Smith, S. and T.P. Young. 2002. EH faculty host conference on restoration issues at UCD. Growing Points 6(2):8. pdf

Young, T.P. 2001. What is a native? Noxious Times (California Interagency Noxious Weed Coordinating Committee) 3(4):11. [Reprinted in Growing Points] pdf

Young, T.P. & D.B. Leroy. 2000. Restoration in Education: at UC-Davis, the emphasis is on growing a Restoration Ecology program for the future. Society for Ecological Restoration News 13(1):8.

Young, T.P. 2000. Matching wits with the hyrax. Muse Magazine September, 28-34. (adapted from Young 1996).

Young, T.P. 1999. Catastrophes are still interesting. Conservation Biology 13: 202 (correspondence). pdf

Young, T.P. 1999. Restoration ecology takes root at UC Davis. Growing Points 3(1):4. pdf

Wester, A. & T.P. Young. 1997. Spatial pattern of deer herbivory at suburban forest edges. Restoration & Management Notes 15:186-187.

Young, T.P. & A.H. Harcourt. 1997. Viva Caughley! Conservation Biology 11:831-832 (correspondence). pdf

Young. T.P. (with F. Chan). 1997. Restoration ecology: renewing our disturbed landscapes. Growing Points 6(5):1-2. pdf

Young, T.P. 1996. Little criminals. Pp. 117-126 in: I’ve been gone far too long. M. Borgerhof Mulder, ed. RDR Press, Berkeley. (Reprinted in Natural History, June 1996:28-31.)

Young, T.P. 1995. Wildlife management links up with conservation biology. Conservation Biology 9: 969-971 (book review).

Young, T.P. & F. Kostel-Hughes. 1995. NIH Image: free software for image analysis. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 76: 39-40 (technical note).

Young, T.P. 1995. 'The evolution of group size and the evolution of group living' and 'Predation risk, predation rate, and the effectiveness of anti-predator traits'. Boxes in: Isbell, L.A. Predation on primates: ecological patterns and evolutionary consequences. Evolutionary Anthropology 3: 62-71.

Young, T.P. 1995. A protist writes. TREE 10:289 (correspondence). pdf

Young, T.P. 1994. Biodiversity questions. Science 265: 1511 (correspondence). pdf

Young. T.P. 1994. Essentials of Conservation Biology , by Richard Primack. Quarterly Review of Biology 69: 118-119 (book review).

Young, T.P. 1993. Development and conservation: more on Caring. Conservation Biology 7: 750-751 (correspondence). pdf

Young, T.P. 1992. Intuition and the logistic equation. TREE 7:315-6 (correspondence). pdf

Young, T.P. 1991. Diversity overrated. Nature 352(6330): 10 (correspondence). pdf

Young, T.P. 1989. Report on Mpala Farm to the Smithsonian Institution, 25 pp.

Young, T.P. 1984. Kenya's indigenous forests: status, threats, and prospects for conservation action. World Wildlife Fund/IUCN Report. 41 pp.

Fayad, C, C. Shorter & T. P. Young 1980. Wildlife in the high moorlands. Swara 7: 12.

Young, T.P. 1980. Plant life on Africa's highest peaks. Swara 7: 8-10.

Young, T.P. 1973. San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Accidents in North American Mountaineering, 1972. American Alpine Club