KLEE Publications

(Downloads available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Truman_Young/contributions)

The Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE) is the most productive field experiment ever carried out on the continent of Africa. Below are publications from research done at the exclosures, or funded by the project.


  1. Young, T.P., N. Patridge & A. Macrae. 1995. Long-term glades in acacia bushland and their edge effects in Laikipia, Kenya. Ecological Applications 5:97-108.
  2. Young, T.P. 1995. Landscape mosaics created by canopy gaps, forest edges and bushland glades. Selbyana 16:127-134.
  3. Young, T.P., C.H. Stubblefield & L.A. Isbell. 1997. Ants on swollen-thorn acacias: species coexistence in a simple systemOecologia 109:98-107.
  4. Young, T.P., B. Okello, D. Kinyua, & T.M. Palmer. 1998. KLEE: the Kenya long-term exclosure experiment. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 14:94-102.
  5. Young, T.P. and B.D. Okello. 1998. Relaxation of an induced defense after exclusion of herbivores: spines on Acacia drepanolobium. Oecologia 115:508-513.
  6. Keesing, F. 1998. Ecology and behaviour of the pouched mouse, Saccostomus mearnsi, in central Kenya. Journal of Mammalogy 73:919-931.
  7. Keesing, F.L. 1998. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya. Oecologia 116:381-389.
  8. Okello, D.N. & T.P. Young. 2000. Effects of fire, bruchid beetles and soil type on the germination and seedling establishment of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 17:46-51.
  9. Keesing, F. 2000. Cryptic consumers and the ecology of an African savanna. Bioscience 50:205-216.
  10. Metz M.R. & F. Keesing. 2001. Dietary choices of the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya. Biotropica 33: 182-187.
  11. Keesing, F., and T. Crawford. 2001. Impacts of density and large mammals on space use by the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya Journal of Tropical Ecology 17:465-472.
  12. Gadd, M.E., T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2001. Effects of simulated shoot and leaf herbivory in Acacia drepanolobium. Oikos 92:515-520.
  13. Okello, B.D., T.G. O’Connor, & T.P. Young. 2001. Growth, biomass estimates, and charcoal production of Acacia drepanolobium in Laikipia, Kenya. Forest Ecology & Management 142:143-153.
  14. Shaw, M.T., F. Keesing, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2002. Herbivory on acacia seedlings in an East African savanna. Oikos 98:385-392.
  15. Ward, D. & T.P. Young. 2002. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:913-529.
  16. Young, T.P., M.L. Stanton & C. Christian. 2003. Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. Oikos 101:171-179.
  17. Warui, C. M., M.H. Villet, & T.P. Young. 2004. Spiders (Araneae) from black cotton soils of a highland savanna in Laikipia, central Kenya. Journal of Afrotropical Zoology 1:13-24.
  18. Goheen J.R., F. Keesing, B.F. Allan, D. Ogada, and R.S. Ostfeld. 2004. Net effects of large mammals on Acacia seedling survival in an African savanna. Ecology 85:1555-1561.
  19. Huntzinger, P.M., R. Karban, T.P. Young & T.M. Palmer. 2004. Relaxation of induced indirect defenses of acacias following removal of mammalian herbivores. Ecology 85:609-614.
  20. Warui, C.M., M.H. Villet, T.P. Young & R. Jocqué. 2005. Influence of grazing by large mammals on the spider community of a Kenyan savanna biome. Journal of Arachnology 33:269-279.
  21. Gadd, M.E. 2005. Conservation outside of parks: attitudes of local people in Laikipia, Kenya. Environmental Conservation 32:1-14.
  22. Young, T.P., T.M Palmer & M.E. Gadd. 2005. Competition and compensation among cattle, zebras, and elephants in a semi-arid savanna in Laikipia, Kenya.  Biological Conservation 122:351-359.
  23. Young, T.P. 2006. Declining rural economies and the future of biodiversity: missing the forest for the trees? Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy 9:319-334.
  24. McCauley, D.J., F. Keesing, T.P. Young, J. Peters & B.F. Allan. 2006. Indirect effects of large herbivorous mammals on snakes in an African savanna. Ecology 87:2657-2663.
  25. Isbell, L.A. & T. P. Young. 2007. Interspecific and temporal variation in domatia contents of the ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium, a staple food for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 69:1387-1398.
  26. Goheen, J.R., T.P. Young, F. Keesing & T.M. Palmer. 2007. Consequences of herbivory by native ungulates for reproduction of a savanna tree. Journal of Ecology 95:129-138.
  27. Young, T.P. & D.J. Augustine. 2007. Intraspecific variation in the effects of large mammalian herbivores on reproduction in Acacia species in Laikipia, Kenya.  Biotropica  39:559-561.
  28. Pringle, R.M., T.P. Young & D.I. Rubenstein. 2007. Primary productivity and the strength of herbivore-initiated interaction cascades.  PNAS 104:193-197.
  29. Odadi, W., T.P. Young & J. Okeyo-Owuor. 2007. The effects of wild herbivores on cattle diet in Laikipia rangeland, Kenya.  Rangeland Ecology and Management 60:179-185.
  30. Riginos, C. & T.P. Young. 2007. Positive and negative effects of grasses and wild and domestic herbivores on Acacia saplings. Oecologia 153:985-995.
  31. Riginos, C. & J.B. Grace. 2008. Savanna tree density, herbivores, and the herbaceous community: bottom-up vs. top-down effects. Ecology 89:2228-2238.
  32. Veblen, K.E. 2008. Season- and herbivore-dependent competition and facilitation in a semi-arid savanna. Ecology 89:1532-1540.
  33. Ogada, D., M.E. Gadd, R.S. Ostfeld, T.P. Young & F. Keesing. 2008. Impacts of large herbivores on bird diversity and abundance in an African savanna. Oecologia 156:387-397.
  34. Palmer, T.M., M.L. Stanton, T.P. Young, J.R. Goheen, R.M Pringle & R. Karban. 2008. Breakdown of an ant-plant mutualism following the loss of large herbivores from an African savanna.  Science 319:192-195. [See also Science 319:1760-61.]
  35. McCauley, D.J., F. Keesing, T.P. Young & K. Dittmar. 2008. Effects of the removal of large herbivores on fleas of small mammals. Journal of Vector Ecology 33:263-268.
  36. Sensenig, R.L. 2008. Fire Ecology in Laikipia, Kenya.  Booklet distributed to Laikipia landowners, managers, and stakeholders. 79pp
  37. Okello, B.D., T.P. Young, C. Riginos, D. Kelly & T. O'Connor. 2008. Short-term survival and long-term mortality of Acacia drepanolobium after a controlled burn in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 46:395-401.

38.   Riginos, C. 2009. Grass competition suppresses acacia growth across multiple demographic stages. Ecology 90:335-340.

39.   Odadi, W.O., T.P. Young & J.B. Okeyo-Owuor. 2009. Behavioural responses of cattle to shared foraging with wild herbivores in an East African rangeland Applied Animal Behavior Science 116:120-125.

40.   Riginos, C., J.B. Grace, D.J. Augustine, & T.P. Young. 2009. Local versus landscape-scale effects of savanna trees on grasses. Journal of Ecology 97:1337-1345.

41.   Goheen, J.R., T.M. Palmer, F. Keesing, C. Riginos, and T.P. Young. 2010. Large herbivores facilitate savanna tree establishment via diverse and indirect pathways.  Journal of Animal Ecology 79:372-382.

42.   Brody, A.K. T. M. Palmer, K. Fox-Dobbs, & D.F. Doak. 2010. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium. Ecology 91:399-407.

43.  Goheen, J.R. & T.M. Palmer. 2010. Defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an African savanna. Current Biology 20:1768-1772.

44.   Kinyua, D.M., L.E. McGeoch, N. Georgiadis, & T.P. Young.  2010. Short-term and long-term effects of tilling, fertilization, and seeding on the restoration of degraded rangeland in Laikipia, Kenya. Restoration Ecology 18S1:226-233.

45.   Veblen, K.E. & T.P. Young. 2010. Contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife on the vegetation development of a savanna landscape mosaic. Journal of Ecology 98:993-1001.

46.   King, E.G. & K.K.  Caylor. 2010. Herbivores and mutualistic ants interact to modify tree photosynthesis. New Phytologist 187:18-22.

47.   Ogada, D.M. & F. Keesing. 2010. Decline of vultures over a three-year period in Laikipia, Central Kenya. Journal of Raptor Research 44:129-135.

48.   Pringle, R.M., D.F. Doak, A.K. Brody, R. Jocque´ & T.M. Palmer. 2010. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna. PLoS Biology 8(5):e1000377.

49.   Treydte, A.C., C. Riginos & F. Jeltsch. 2010. Enhanced use of beneath-canopy vegetation by grazing ungulates in African savannahs. Journal of Arid Environments 74:1597-1603.

50.   Gregory, N.C., R.L. Sensenig, & D.S. Wilcove. 2010. Effects of controlled fire and livestock grazing on bird communities in East African savannas. Conservation Biology 24: 1606-1616.

51.   Sensenig, R.L., M. Demment, & E.A. Laca. 2010. Allometric scaling predicts preferences for burned patches in a guild of East African grazers. Ecology 91:2898-2907.

52.   Kuria, S.K., M.H. Villet, T.M. Palmer, & M.L. Stanton. 2010. A comparison of two sampling methods for surveying mammalian herbivore impacts on beetle communities in the canopy of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya. African Entomology 18:87-98.

53.   Fox-Dobbs, K., D. F. Doak, A. K. Brody & T. M. Palmer. 2010. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function by affecting N2 fixation in an East African savanna. Ecology 91:1296–1307.

54.   Porensky, L.M. 2011. When edges meet: interacting edge effects in an African savanna. Journal of Ecology 99:923-934.

55.   Augustine, D.J., T.P. Young, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos & J.R. Goheen. 2011. Pathways for positive cattle-wildlife interactions in semi-arid rangelands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 632:55-71.

56.   Pringle, R.M., T.M. Palmer, J.R. Goheen, D.J. McCauley & F. Keesing. 2011. Ecological importance of large herbivores in the Ewaso ecosystem. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 632:43-53.

57.   Maclean, J.E., J.R. Goheen, T.M. Palmer & T.P. Young. 2011. Small mammals limit tree population growth in an African savanna. Ecology 92:1626–1636.

58.   Odadi, W.O., M. Jain, S.E. Van Wieren, H.H.T. Prins and D.I. Rubenstein. 2011. Facilitation between bovids and equids in an African savanna. Evolutionary Ecology Research 13:237-252.

59.   Odadi, W.O., A.S. Abdulrazak, M.M. Karachi & T.P. Young. 2011. African wild ungulates compete with or facilitate cattle depending on season. Science 333:1753-1755.

60. Riginos, R., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen, W.O. Odadi, R.L. Sensenig, F. Keesing, D. Kimuyu, M.L. Wilkerson, and T.P. Young.  2012. Lessons on the relationship between pastoralism and biodiversity from the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE). Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice 2012 3:1.

61.   Porensky, L.M. and K.E. Veblen. 2012. Grasses and large herbivores reinforce landscape heterogeneity by excluding trees from ecosystem hotspots. Oecologia 168:749-759.

62.   Veblen, K.E. 2012. Savanna glade hotspots: plant community development and synergy with large herbivores. Journal of Arid Environments 78:119-127.

63.  Kuria, S.K. & M.H. Villet. 2012. The role of ants and mammalian herbivores on the structure and composition of insect communities found on canopies of Acacia drepanolobium. African Journal of Agricultural Research 7:5317-5331.

64.   Odadi, W.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, M.M. Karachi & T.P. Young. 2013. Protein supplementation-driven shifts in forage selection by cattle: implications for cattle wildlife coexistence. Ecological Applications 23:455-463.

65.   Donihue, C.M., L.M. Porensky, J. Foufopoulus, C. Riginos & R.M. Pringle. 2013. Glade cascades: indirect legacy effects of pastoralism enhance the abundance and spatial structuring of arboreal fauna. Ecology 94:827-837.

66.   Porensky, L.M., S.F. Bucher, K.E. Veblen, A.C. Treydte,& T.P. Young. 2013. Megaherbivores and cattle alter edge effects around ecosystem hotspots in an African savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 96:55-63.

67.   Porensky, L.M. & T.P. Young. 2013. Edge interactions in fragmented and patchy landscapes.  Conservation Biology 27:509-519.

68.   Bergstrom, B.J. 2013. Would East African savanna rodents inhibit woody encroachment? Evidence from stable isotopes and microhistological analysis of feces. Journal of Mammalogy 94:436-447.

69.   Young, H.S., DJ. McCauley, E. Castillo, J.R. Goheen, K.M. Helgen, T.M. Palmer, R.M. Pringle, T.P. Young & R. Dirzo. 2013. Plant community response to changes in herbivore abundance and identity across abiotic gradients and experimental contexts. Journal of Ecology 101:1031-1041.

70.   Veblen, K.E. 2013. Impacts of traditional livestock corrals on woody plant communities in an East African savanna. The Rangeland Journal 35:349353.

71.   1. Porensky, L.M., S.E. Wittman, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2013. Herbivory and drought interact to enhance diversity and spatial patterning in a savanna understory. Oecologia 173:591-602.

72.   2. Keesing, F., B.F. Allan, T.P. Young & R.S. Ostfeld. 2013. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 23:1410–1418.

73.   3. Wilkerson, M.L., L.M. Roche & T.P. Young. 2013. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna. Ecology and Evolution 3:3672-3682.

74.  Kirigia, A., J.T. Njoka, P.D Kinyua & T.P. Young. 2013. Characterizations of livestock manure marketing chain and the annual income contribution of manure trade in Mukogodo, Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research 8:5864-5871.

75.   McNally, A., C. Funk, G. Husak, J. Michaelsen, B. Cappelaere, J. Demarty, T. Pellarin, T.P. Young, K.K. Caylor, C. Riginos & K.E. Veblen. 2013. "Estimating Sahelian and East African soil moisture using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 10, 7963-7997. 

76.   Petipas, R.H. & A.K. Brody. 2014. Termites and ungulates affect arbuscular mycorrhizal richness and infectivity in a semi-arid savanna. Botany 92:233-240.

77.   Young, H. S., R. Dirzo, K. M. Helgen, D. J. McCauley, S. Billeter, M. Kosoy, L. Osikowicz, T. P. Young & K. Dittmar. 2014. Declines in large wildlife increase landscape-level prevalence of rodent-borne disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111:7036-7041.

78.   Kimuyu, D.K., R.L. Sensenig, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen & T.P. Young. 2014. Wild and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna. Ecological Applications 24:741-749.

79.   Keesing, F. & T.P. Young. 2014. Cascading consequences of the loss of large mammals in an African savanna. Bioscience 64:487-405.

80.   Dirzo, R., H.S. Young, M. Galetti, G. Ceballos, N.J.B. Isaac & B. Collen. 2014. Defaunation in the Anthropocene. Science 345:401-406.

81.   Ford, A.T., J.R. Goheen, T.O. Otieno, L. Bidner, L.A. Isbell, T.M. Palmer, D. Ward, R. Woodroffe & R.M. Pringle. 2014. Large carnivores make savanna tree communities less thorny. Science 246:346-349.

82.   Young, H.S., D.J. McCauley, R. Dirzo, J.R. Goheen, B. Agwanda, E.O. Castillo, A. Ferguson, S.N. Kinyua, M. McDonough, T.M. Palmer, R.M. Pringle, T.P. Young & K.M. Helgen. 2015. Context-dependent effects of large mammals declines on small mammal communities in central Kenya. Ecological Applications 25:348-360.

83.   Bonachela, R.M. Pringle, E. Sheffer, T.C. Coverdale, J.A. Guyton, K.K. Caylor, S.A. Levin, & C.E. Tarnita. 2015. Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climatic change. Science 347:651-655. 

84.   Riginos, C. 2015. Climate alters the landscape of fear in an African savanna. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:124-133.

85.   Porensky, L.M. & K.E. Veblen. 2015. Generation of ecosystem hotspots using short-term cattle corrals in an African savanna. Rangeland Ecology & Management 68:131-141.

86.  Ngatia, L.W., B.L. Turner, J.T. Njoka, T.P. Young & K.R. Reddy. 2015. The effects of herbivory and nutrients on plant biomass and carbon storage in vertisols of an East African savanna. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment  208:55–63.

87.   Young, H.S., R. Dirzo, D.J. McCauley, B. Agwanda, L. Cattaneo, K. Dittmarjj, R.P. Eckerlin, R.C. Fleischer, L.E. Helgen, A. Hintz, J. Montinieri, S. Zhao, & K.M. Helgen. 2015. Drivers of intensity and prevalence of flea parasitism on small mammals in East African savanna ecosystems. Journal of Parasitology 101:327-335.

88.  Palmer, T.M., E.G. Pringle, A. Stier & R.D. Holt. 2015. Mutualism in a community context. Pp. 159-180 in: Mutualism. J.L. Bronstein (ed). Oxford University Press.

89.   Pringle, R.M., D. Kimuyu, R.L. Sensenig, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos, T.M. Palmer & T.P. Young. 2015. Synergistic indirect effects of elephants and fire in an African savanna. Journal of Animal Ecology 84:1637–1645.

90.   Young, H.S., R. Dirzo, K.M. Helgen, D.J. McCauley, C. Nunn, P. Snyder, K.E. Veblen, S, Zhao,& V.O. Ezenwa. 2016. Large wildlife removal drives redistribution of immune defenses in rodents. Functional Ecology 30:799-807.

91.   Porensky, L.M. & T.P. Young. 2016. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type. Landscape Ecology 31:1663–1680.

92.   Veblen, K.E., L.M. Porensky, C. Riginos & T. P. Young. 2016. Are cattle surrogate wildlife? Savanna plant community composition explained by total herbivory, not herbivore identity. Ecological Applications 26:1610-1623.

93.  Pringle, R.M., K.M. Prior, T.M. Palmer, T.P. Young & J.R. Goheen. 2016. Large herbivores promote habitat specialization and beta diversity of African savanna trees. Ecology 97:2640-2657.

94.      Charles, G., L.M. Porensky, C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen & T.P. Young. 2017. Herbivore effects on productivity vary by guild: cattle increase mean productivity while wildlife reduce variability. Ecological Applications 27:143-155.

95.      Odadi, W.O., D.M. Kimuyu, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2017. Fire-induced negative responses of cattle to shared foraging with native ungulates in an African savanna. Journal of Applied Ecology 54:935–944. [Editor’s Choice]

96.      Palmer, T.M. & T.P. Young. 2017. Integrating ecological complexity into our understanding of ant-plant mutualism: ant-acacia interactions in African savannas. Pp. 200-222 in: Oliveira, P.S. and Koptur, S., eds.  Ant-Plant Interactions: Impacts of Humans on Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

97.      Sensenig, R.L., D.K. Kimuyu, J.C. Ruiz Guajardo, K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2017. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species. Ecology 98:1455-1464.

98.      Young, H.S., D.J. McCauley, R. Dirzo, C.L. Nunn, M.G. Campana, B. Agwanda, E.R. Otarola-Castillo, E.R. Castillo, R.M. Pringle, K.E. Veblen, D.J. Salkeld, K. Stewardson, R. Fleischer, E. Lambin, T.M. Palmer & K.M. Helgen. 2017. Interacting effects of land use and climate on rodent-borne pathogens in central Kenya. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372:20160116.

99.      Petipas, R.H., J.B. González, T.M. Palmer & A.K. Brody. 2017. Habitat-specific AMF symbioses enhance drought tolerance of a native Kenyan grass. Acta Oecologica 78:71-78.

100.    Kimuyu, D.M., K.E. Veblen, C. Riginos & T.P. Young. 2017. Influence of cattle on grazing and browsing wildlife varies with season and presence of megaherbivores. Ecological Applications 27:786–798.

101.    Kimuyu, D.M., R.L. Sensenig, R.M. Chira, J.M. Githaiga & T.P. Young. 2017. Spatial scales influence long-term response of herbivores to prescribed burning in a savanna ecosystem. International Journal of Wildland Fire 26:287-295.

102.    Li, S., N.E. Levina, K. Soderberg, K.J. Dennis, & K.K. Caylor. 2017. Triple oxygen isotope composition of leaf waters in Mpala, central Kenya. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 468:38–50.

103.    Weinstein, S., G. Titcomb, B. Agwanda, C. Riginos & H. Young. 2017. Parasite responses to large mammal loss in an African savanna. Ecology 98:1839-1848.

104.    Allan, B.F., H. Tallis, R. Chaplin-Kramer, S. Huckett, V.A. Kowal, J. Musengezi, S. Okanga, R.S. Ostfeld, J. Schieltz, C.M. Warui, S.A. Wood & F. Keesing. 2017. Can integrating wildlife and livestock enhance ecosystem services in central Kenya? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15:328–335.

105.    Keesing, F., R.S. Richard S. Ostfeld, T.P. Young & B.F. Allan. 2018. Cattle and rainfall affect tick abundance in central Kenya. Parasitology 45:345-354.

106.    Riginos, C., L.M. Porensky, K.E. Veblen & T.P. Young. 2018. Herbivory and drought generate short-term stochasticity and long-term stability in a savanna understory community. Ecological Applications 28:323–335.

107.    Sitters, J. & H.O. Venterink. 2018. A stoichiometric perspective of the effect of herbivore dung on ecosystem functioning. Ecology and Evolution 8:1043-1046.

108.    Young, T.P., C. Riginos, K.E. Veblen, W.O. Odadi, D. Kimuyu, L.M. Porensky, H. Young & G.K. Charles. 2018. Relationships between cattle and biodiversity in a multi-use landscape revealed by the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE). Rangeland Ecology and Management 71:281-291. [Editor’s Choice]

109.    González, J.B. R.H. Petipas, O. Franken, E.T. Kiers, K.E. Veblen & A.K. Brody. 2018. Herbivore removal reduces influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant growth and tolerance in an East African savanna. Oecologia, 187:123-133.

110.    Jia, S., X. Wang, Z. Yuan, and M.S. Luskin. 2018. Global signal of top-down control of terrestrial plant communities by herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115(24):201707984

111.    Odadi, W.O., G.K. Charles & T.P. Young. 2018. Cattle preferentially forage on African savanna termite mounds, but not when they share habitat with wild ungulates. Ecology & Evolution 8:9074-9085.

112.    Goheen, J.R., D.J. Augustine, K.E. Veblen, D.M. Kimuyu, T.M. Palmer, L.M. Porensky, R.M. Pringle, J. Ratnam, C. Riginos, M. Sankaran, A.T. Ford, A.A. Hassan, R. Jakopak, T.R. Kartzinel, S. Kurukura, A.M. Louthan, W.O. Odadi, T.O. Otieno, A.M. Wambua, H.S. Young & T.P. Young. 2018. Conservation and management lessons from large-mammal manipulations in East Africa – KLEE, UHURU, and GLADE. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (The Year in Conservation and Ecology) 1429:31–49.

113.    Goheen, J.R. 2018. A win–win for wildlife and ranching. Nature Sustainability 1:535–536.

114.    Koerner, S.E., M.D. Smith, D.E. Burkepile, N. Hanan, M.L. Avolio, S.L. Collings, A.K. Knapp, N.P. Lemoine, E.J. Forrestel, S. Eby, Dave I. Thompson, G. Aguado-Santacruz, J.P. Anderson, M. Anderson, A. Angassa, S. Bagchi, E.S. Bakker, G. Bastin, L.E. Baur, K.H. Beard, E.A. Beever, P.J. Bohlen, E.H. Boughton, D. Canestro, A. Cesa, E. Chaneton, J. Cheng, C.M. D'Antonio, C. Deleglise, F. Dembélé, J. Dorrough, D. Eldridge, B. Fernandez-Going, S. Fernández-Lugo, L.H. Fraser, B. Freedman, G. Garcia-Salgado, J.R. Goheen, L. Guo, S. Husheer, M. Karembé, J.M.H. Knops, T. Kraaij, A. Kulmatiski, M. Kytöviita, F. Lezama, G. Loucougaray, A. Loydi, D.G. Milchunas, S. Milton, J.W. Morgan, C. Moxham, K.C. Nehring, H.Olff, T. M. Palmer, S. Rebollo, C. Riginos, A.C. Risch, M. Rueda, M. Sankaran,, T. Sasaki, K. Schoenecker, N.L. Schultz, M. Schütz, A. Schwabe, F. Siebert, C. Smit, K.A. Stahlheber, C. Storm, D.J. Strong, J. Su, Y.V. Tiruvaimozhi, C. Tyler, J. Val, M.L. Vandegehuchte,, K.E. Veblen, L.T. Vermeire, D. Ward, J. Wu, T.P. Young,, Q. Yu, and T.J. Zelikova. 2018. Resolving variation in herbivore effects on plant biodiversity – change in dominance as a global mechanism. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2:1925-1932.

115.   Bergstrom, B.J.,  R.L. Sensenig,  D.J. Augustine  and T.P. Young. 2018. Searching for cover: soil enrichment and herbivore exclusion, not fire, enhance African savanna small-mammal abundance. Ecosphere 9:e02519.

116.    Ostfeld, J.K. & F. Keesing. 201x. Impacts of large mammals on movements of the pouched mouse (Saccostomus mearnsi) in central Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology, online early. 

117.     DeCarlo, K.F. & K.K. Caylor. 2019. Biophysical effects on soil crack morphology in a faunally active dryland vertisol. Geoderma 334:134-145.



1. Keesing, Felicia. 1997.  Ecological interactions between small mammals, large mammals, and vegetation in a tropical savanna of central Kenya.  Ph.D. Diss., University of California at Berkeley.

2. John Mugo Kagori. 1999. Biological nitrogen fixation of Acacia drepanolobium. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

3. Masarelli, Darcy 2001.  Effects of large mammal herbivores on the bird community of an East African savanna. M.Sc. Dissertation, SUNY Albany.

4. Odadi, Wilfred O. 2003.  Cattle foraging behaviour: the influence of large mammalian herbivory in an Acacia savanna, Laikipia, Kenya. M.Sc. Dissertation, Moi University.

5. Gadd, Michelle E. 2003. Ecology and conservation of elephants in African rangelands. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.

6. Huntzinger, P. Mikaela. 2005. Competition between herbivores of very different body sizes: the effects of large mammals on grasshoppers in Laikipia, Kenya.  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Davis.

7. Warui, Charles M. 2004.  Impacts of wildlife and cattle grazing on spider (Araneae) biodiversity in a highland savanna ecosystem, in Laikipia, central Kenya.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Rhodes University (South Africa).

8. Otieno, Silvanos. 2004. Effects of domestic and wild herbivore utilisation on herbaceous layer aboveground primary production in central Kenya savanna. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

9. Kamande, S.K. 2006. The role of ants in structuring insect communities on the canopies of Senegalia drepanolobium near Laikipia, Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, Rhodes University.

10. Ngatia, L. 2007.  Effects of large herbivores on selected chemical properties of two soil types in Laikipia, savanna ecosystem, Kenya. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

11. Sensenig, Ryan L. 2007. Spatial ecology of fire in an East African savanna: effects of burn size and patchiness on the foraging ecology of herbivores of varying body size. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.

12. Okello, Bell D.N. 2007. Effects of herbivores, fire and harvesting on the population dynamics of Acacia drepanolobium Sjoestedt in Laikipia, Kenya.  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Natal, South Africa.

13. Veblen, Kari E. 2008. Livestock and wildlife effects on the successional development of a savanna landscape mosaic in East Africa. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.

14. Riginos, Corinna. 2008. Tree-grass interactions in an East African savanna: the role of wild and domestic herbivores. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.

15. Kimathi, I. 2009. Effects of fire treatments on the aboveground herbaceous layer primary production in the savanna ecosystem, Laikipia District, Kenya. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

16. Odadi, Wilfred O. 2010. Competitive and facilitative interactions between cattle and wild ungulates in a semi-arid savanna rangeland in Laikipia, Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, Egerton University.

17. Kirigia, Anthony. 2010. Livestock manure flow from rangelands to cultivated lands in central Kenya: a case study of Mukogodo Division, Laikipia District. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

18. Petipas, Renee. 2011. Underground in gated communities: the effects of termites and ungulate herbivores on plant mycorrhizal associations. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Vermont. 

19. Porensky, Lauren McGeoch. 2012. Interacting edges in an African savanna.  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at Davis.

20. Maclean, Janet E. 2012. Interacting effects of multiple herbivore guilds on the fitness and demography of a savanna tree. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of British Columbia.

21.  Ndoo, Vanencia.  2012. Effect of season and soil type on large herbivore dung decomposition rate in Laikipia savannah rangelands of Kenya. MSc. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

22. Ngatia, Lucy. 2012. Grass productivity and carbon storage in relation to rainfall, soil nutrients, and herbivory in an East African savanna. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida.

23. Kimuyu, Duncan. 2016. Interactions between wildlife, cattle, and fire in a savanna ecosystem, Laikipia Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Nairobi.

24. Charles, Grace K., 2018, Herbivore-mediated trophic cascades in an African savanna: Quantifying how a diverse set of ecosystem engineers shapes patterns in savanna structure and function Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Davis.

25. Forbes, Elizabeth. 201x, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Outreach publications, Notes, etc.

  1. Young, T.P. 2003.  KLEE: the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (“KLEE Corner” #1). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.   March/April Issue.
  2. Young, T.P. 2003.  Rodents take advantage of the absence of large mammals (“KLEE Corner” #2). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  November Issue.
  3. Young, T.P. 2004. Plants fight back. (“KLEE Corner” #3). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  May Issue.
  4. Young, T.P. 200 Do elephants lessen competition between cattle and zebras? (“KLEE Corner” #4). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  November Issue.
  5. Young, T.P. 200 The pathology of no herbivory: long-term effects of herbivore exclusion in an African savanna. (“KLEE Corner” #5). LWF Newsletter.  March/April Issue.
  6. Young, T.P. and J.R. Goheen. 200  Whistling thorn recruitment is affected in unexpected ways by large mammals. (“KLEE Corner” #6). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Iss.
  7. Riginos, C. 2006.  Cattle, wildlife, and grasses affect bush encroachment.  (“KLEE Corner” #7). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  July Iss.
  8. Pringle, R.M. & D.J. McCauley. 2007.  Zebras, giraffes, and snakes in the grass. (KLEE Corner #8).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue.
  9. Young, T.P. 2008.  Do cattle compete with wildlife?  (KLEE Corner #9). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue.
  10. Wilkerson, M.L. & T.P. Young. 2008. Butterflies and blooms: contrasting effects of cattle and wildlife. (“KLEE Corner” #10). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  May Issue.
  11. Sensenig, R.L. 2008. Fire Ecology in Laikipia, Kenya.  Booklet distributed to Laikipia landowners, managers, and stakeholders. 79pp.
  12. Riginos, C. 2008.  Pictorial Guide to the Common Grasses of the Black Cotton Ecosystem of Laikipia.
  13. Veblen K.E. 2009. Cattle and wildlife affect development of old boma sites. (“KLEE Corner” #11). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January Issue.
  14. McGeoch, L.E.  2009.  Will mobile bomas be a good management tool?  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January Issue, pp. 1, 5.
  15. Young. T.P. Five more years of funding for the KLEE project.  Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) January Issue, pg. 3.
  16. Goheen, J. & T.M. Palmer. Of megaherbivores and mutualists: how ants can protect against tree encroachment in the absence of elephants. (KLEE Corner #12).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  June 2009 Issue.
  17. Young, T.P. & R.Y. Sensenig. 2010.  Elephants and fire together suppress Acacia drepanolobium more than either alone. (KLEE Corner #13).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January 2010 Issue.
  18. Young, T.P., D.N. Kinyua & L.McGeoch. 2010.  How can we restore degraded rangeland? (KLEE Corner #14).  Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  June 2010 Issue.
  19. Veblen, K.E. & T.P. Young. 2011. Plants helping plants in defense against cattle and wildlife (KLEE Corner #15). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  January 2011 Issue.
  20.  Porensky, L.M., K.E. Veblen, & T.P. Young. 2011. What is so special about glade edges? (KLEE Corner #16). Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter  July 2011 Issue.
  21. Young, T.P. 2013. Fire in the belly. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue.
  22. Young, T.P., R.L. Sensenig and D.M. Kimuyu. 2013. Controlled burns in KLEE: is fire a bane or a boon? (KLEE Corner #17) Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  July Issue.
  23. Young, T.P., R.L. Sensenig, D.M. Kimuyu, C. Riginos, and K.E. Veblen. 2013. Livestock and wildlife reduce fire intensity. (KLEE Corner #18) Laikipia Wildlife Forum Newsletter.  November Issue.
  24. Young, T.P. 2014.  Happy 20th, Mpala! Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue.
  25. Kimuyu, D. 2015. Burning Issues: Does size matter? Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue, pg. 6.
  26. Charles, G. 2016. Zebra = Cow? Effects of different herbivores on plant growth. Mpala Memos (Mpala Wildlife Foundation Newsletter) April issue, pp. 8-9.