Segera & other Laikipia Ecology/Behavior Research

Segera & other Laikipia Ecology/Behavior Research

(peer-reviewed papers only)

Segera: (some of these publications are also listed under Mpala, above, if they were carried out out of Mpala Research Centre)

Carlson AA & Isbell LA. 2001. Causes and consequences of single-male and multi-male mating in free-ranging patas monkeys, Erythrocebus patas. Animal Behaviour 62:1047-1058.

Isbell, L.A. & T.P. Young. 2002. Ecological models of female social relationships in primates: similarities, disparities, and some directions for future clarity. Behaviour 139:177-202.

Enstam KL, Isbell LA & De Maar TW. 2002.  Male demography, female mating behavior, and infanticide in wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). International Journal of Primatology 23:85-104.

Isbell, L.A. and K.L. Enstam. 2002. Predator-(in)sensitive foraging in sympatric vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas): a test of ecological models of group dispersion. In: Eat or Be Eaten: Predation-Sensitive Foraging in Primates (L.E. Miller, ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 154-168.

Enstam KL, Isbell LA.  2002.  Comparison of responses to alarm calls by patas (Erythrocebus patas) and vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkeys in relation to habitat structure.  American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119:3-14.

Isbell, L.A., D.L. Cheney, and R.M. Seyfarth. 2003.  Why vervets live in multi-male groups. Pp. 173-188 in The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys. (M.E, Glenn and M. Cords, eds.). Kluwer Academic, New York.

Isbell, L.A. 2004.  Is there no place like home?  Ecological bases of dispersal in primates and their consequences for the formation of kin groups.  Pp. 71-108 in Kinship and Behavior in Primates (B. Chapais and C. Berman, eds.). Oxford University Press.

Isbell, L.A. 2006. Snakes as agents of evolutionary change in primate brains. Journal of Human Evolution 51:1-35.

Enstam, K.L. 2007. Effects of habitat structure on perceived risk of predation and anti-predator behavior in vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas (Erythrocebus patas) monkeys. Pp. 308-338 in: Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. (S. Gursky and K.A.I. Nekaris, eds.). Springer, New York.

Enstam, K.L. and Isbell, L.A. (2007) The guenons (genus Cercopithecus) and their allies: Behavioral ecology of polyspecific associations. Pp. 252-274 in: Primates in Perspective (C.J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K.C. Mackinnon, M.A. Panger, and S.K. Bearder, eds.). Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lemasson, A., Palombit, R.A. & Jubin, R.  2007.  Is friendship between adult males and lactating females a counter-strategy to infanticide?  Observations and playback experiments in Kenyan olive baboons.  Folia Primatologica 78:202.

Lemasson, A., Palombit, R.A. & Jubin, R.  2008.  Friendships between males and lactating females in wild olive baboons: Observations and call playback experiments.  Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 67:1027-1035.

Palombit, R.A.  2008.  Primates.  International Encylopedia of the Social Sciences, 2nd edition, (W.A. Darity, ed), vol. 6, pp. 459-462.   Macmillan / Thomas Gale, Detroit, Michigan.

Jaffe KE, Isbell LA. 2009.  Observations on a group of wild vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after a predator-induced group fusion event in Laikipia, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 7: 62-62.

Jaffe K.E., and L.A. Isbell. 2009.  After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Journal of Primatology 71: 252-260.

Isbell, L.A. T.P. Young, K.E. Jaffe, A.A. Carlson, & R.L. Chancellor. 2009. Demography and life history of sympatric patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) in Laikipia, Kenya. International Journal of Primatology 30:103-124.

Palombit, R.A. 2009.  Friendships with males: A female counterstrategy to infanticide in the Okavango chacma baboons.  In: Sexual Coercion in Primates and Humans: An Evolutionary Perspective On Male Aggression Against Females, (M.N. Muller & R.W. Wrangham, eds.), pp. 377-409.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Isbell, L.A. 2009.  The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well.  Harvard University Press.

Jaffe, K.E. and L.A. Isbell. 2010 Changes in ranging and agonistic behavior of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) after predator-induced group fusion. American Journal of Primatology 72:634–644.

Isbell, L.A. 2013. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). In: Mammals of Africa. Vol. II. Primates. (T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon & J. Kalina, eds), pp. 257-264, Bloomsbury, London.

Isbell, L.A. & K.L. Enstam. 2013. Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). In: Mammals of Africa. Vol. II. Primates. (T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon & J. Kalina, eds), pp. 277-283, Bloomsbury, London.

Palombit. R.A. 2013. Papio anubis - olive baboon.  In: Mammals of Africa. Vol. II. Primates. (T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon & J. Kalina, eds), pp. 233-239, Bloomsbury, London.

Danish, L.M. & Palombit, R.A. 2014. “Following,” an alternative mating strategy used by male olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis): Quantitative behavioral and functional description.  International Journal of Primatology 35:394-410.

Palombit, R.A. 2014. The sexual conflict of infanticide.   In: Genetics and Biology of Sexual Conflict (W.R. Rice & S. Gavrilets, eds.), pp. 199-227.  Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York.

Palombit, R.A. 2014. Sexual conflict in nonhuman primates.  Advances in the Study of Behavior 46:191-280.

Matsumoto-Oda, A. & Palombit, R.A. 2015. Activity budgets and rainfall seasonality in a wild savanna baboon (Papio anubis) group. Primate Research 31:101-107.

Midgley, J.J., T. Sawe, P. Abanyam, K. Hintsa & P. Gacheru. 2016. Spinescent East African savannah acacias also have thick bark, suggesting they evolved under both an intense fire and herbivory regime. Journal of African Ecology 54:118–120.

Enstam, K.J.  2016. Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Pp. 474-476 in: All the World's Primates (N. Rowe, ed.).  Charlestown, Rhode Island.  Pogonias Press.

Isbell, L.A.  2016. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Pp. 469-470 in: All the World's Primates (N. Rowe, ed.).  Charlestown, Rhode Island.  Pogonias Press.

Palombit, R.A.  2016. Olive baboon (Papio anubis). Pp. 432-434 in: All the World's Primates (N. Rowe, ed.).  Charlestown, Rhode Island.  Pogonias Press.

Lynch, E.C., A. Di Fiore, R.F. Lynch, and R.A. Palombit. 2017. Fathers enhance social bonds among paternal half-siblings in immature olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 71:120.


Other Laikipia ecology/behavior research, not at Mpala/Segera (peer-reviewed papers only)

Ol Ari Nyiro

Horne JFM, Short LL. 1990.  Wax-eating by African common bulbuls.  Wilson Bull 102:339-341.

Young, T.P. & C. Francombe.  1991. Growth and yield estimates in natural stands of leleshwa (Tarconanthus camphoratus).  Forest Ecology and Management 42:309-321

Ghebremeskel, K., G. Williams, R.A. Brett, R. Burek & L.S. Harbige. 1991. Nutrient composition of plants most favored by black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the wild.  Comp Biochem Phys A 98:529-534.

Grootenhuis, J.G. & R.O. Olubayo. 1993.  Disease research in the wildlife-livestock interface in Kenya. Vet Quart 15:55-59.

Oloo, T.W., R. Brett  & T.P. Young.  1994. Seasonal variation in the feeding ecology of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in Laikipia, Kenya.  African Journal of Ecology 32:142-157.

Mwasya, J.M., T.P. Young & D.N. Okebiro. 1994. Vegetation map and plant check-list of Ol Ari Nyiro Ranch and the Mukutan Gorge, Laikipia, Kenya.  Journal of East African Natural History 83:143-198.

Newton, L.E. 1994. Four new species of Aloe in Kenya.  Cact Succ J Gr Br 12:50-56.

Kennedy A.D. 1998. Coppicing of Tarconanthus camphoratus (Compositae) as a source of sustainable fuelwood production: an example from the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 36:148-158.

Short, L. & J. Horne.  2001 (2002?).  Toucans, Barbets, and Honeyguides - Ramphastidae, Capitonidae and Indicatoridae.  630 pp.  Oxford University Press.

Dioli, M; Fox, MI. 2004.  First record of the camel tick Rhipicephalus muhsamae in Kenya on a one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). Veterinary Record 155:206-208.

Short, L.L.  & J.F.M. Horne. 2006. The avifauna of an upland seasonal woodland in central Kenya : ecology, behavior, breeding.  Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, 2006. Series Bonner zoologische Monographien, No. 53

Graham, M.D. & T. Ochieng. 2008. Uptake and performance of farm-based measures for reducing crop raiding by elephants Loxodonta africana among smallholder farms in Laikipia District, Kenya. Oryx 42: 76-82. (also, Mutara).

Northern Laikipia/Samburu elephants (see also Graham & Ochieng, above):

Thouless, C.R. 1994.  Conflict between humans and elephants on private land in northern Kenya.  Oryx 28:119-127.

Thouless CR. 1995.  Long distance movements of elephants in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 33:321-334.

Thouless CR, Sakwa J. 1995. Shocking elephants - fences and crop raiders in Laikipia District, Kenya. Biol Conserv 72: 99-107.

Thouless CR. 1996.  Home ranges and social organization of female elephants in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 34: 284-297.

Wittemyer, G. 2001. The elephant population of Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves.  African Journal of Ecology 39:357–365.

Omondi, E. Bitok, O. Kahindi & R. Mayienda. 2002.  Total Aerial Count of Elephants in Samburu/Laikipia, Kenya. Wildlife Service Report, Nairobi, Kenya (2002).

Rasmussen, L.E.L. & Wittemyer, G. 2002. Chemosignaling of musth by individual wild African elephants, (Loxodonta africana): implications for conservation and management. Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences 269:853-860.

Wittemyer, D.K. Daballen, H.B.R. Rasmussen, O. Kahindi & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2005. The demographic status of the Samburu elephant population.  African Journal of Ecology 43:44–47.

Wittemyer G, Douglas-Hamilton I, Getz WM. 2005.  The socioecology of elephants: analysis of the processes creating multi-tiered social structures.  Animal Behaviour 69:1357-1371.

Okello, J.B.A., G. Wittemyer, H.B. Rasmussen, I. Douglas-Hamilton, S. Nyakaana, P. Arctander & H.R. Siegismund. 2005.  Noninvasive genotyping and Mendelian analysis of microsatellites in African savannah elephants.  Journal of Heredity 96:679-687.

Wittemyer G. 2005. Secrets of the savanna: Twenty-three years in the African wilderness unraveling the mysteries of elephants and people.  Social Biology 52 (3-4): 192-193.

Douglas-Hamilton I, Krink T, Vollrath F. 2005. Movements and corridors of African elephants in relation to protected areas. Naturwissenschaften 92:158-163.

Rasmussen, H.B., O. Kahindi, F. Vollrath & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2005.  Estimating elephant densities from wells and droppings in dried out riverbeds.  African Journal of Ecology 43:312-319.

Cerling, T.E., G. Wittemyer, H.B. Rasmussen, F. Vollrath, C.E. Cerling, T.J. Robinson & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2006.  Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes. PNAS 103:371-373.

Rasmussen, H. B., Wittemyer, G. & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2005.  Estimating age of immobilized elephants from teeth impressions using dental silicon. African Journal of Ecology 43:215-219.

Douglas-Hamilton I, Bhalla S, Wittemyer G, Vollrath F. 2006.  Behavioural reactions of elephants towards a dying and deceased matriarch.  Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100:87-102.

Wittemyer G, Getz WM. 2006. A likely ranking interpolation for resolving dominance orders in systems with unknown relationships. Behaviour 143:909-930.

Rasmussen, H. B., Wittemyer, G. & Douglas-Hamilton, I. 2006. Predicting time specific changes in demographic processes using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:366-376.

Wall J, Douglas-Hamilton I, Vollrath F. 2006. Elephants avoid costly mountaineering. Current Biology 16:R527-R529.

Wittemyer G, Ganswindt A, Hodges K. 2007. The impact of ecological variability on the reproductive endocrinology of wild female African elephants. Hormones and Behavior 51 (3): 346-354. [Correction in 52:554-555.]

Wittemyer G, Getz WM. 2007. Hierarchical dominance structure and social organization in African elephants, Loxodonta africana. Animal Behaviour 73:671-681.

Wittemyer G, Rasmussen HB, Douglas-Hamilton I. 2007. Breeding phenology in relation to NDVI variability in free-ranging African elephant. Ecography 30: 42-50.

King, L.E., I. Douglas-Hamilton & F. Vollrath. 2007. African elephants run from the sound of disturbed bees. Current Biology 17:R832-R833.

Wittemyer, G.,W.M.  Getz, F. Vollrath & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2007. Social dominance, seasonal movements, and spatial segregation in African elephants: a contribution to conservation behavior. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 61:1919-1931.

Okello JBA, Masembe C, Rasmussen HB, Wittemyer G, Omondi P, Kahindi O, Muwanika VB, Arctander P, Douglas-Hamilton I, Nyakaana S & Siegismund HR. 2008. Population genetic structure of savannah elephants in Kenya: Conservation and management implications. Journal of Heredity 99:443-452.

Okello, J.B.A., G. Wittemyer G, H.B. Rasmussen, P. Arctander P, I. Douglas-Hamilton & H.R. Siegismund. 2008. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants. Molecular Ecology 17:3788-3799.

Cerling, T.E., G. Wittemyer, J.R. Ehleringer, C.H. Remien & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2009. History of Animals using Isotope Records (HAIR): A 6-year dietary history of one family of African elephants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106: 8093-8100.

King LE, Lawrence A, Douglas-Hamilton I, et al. 2009. Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology  47: 131-137. (“Laikipia”)

Vanleeuwe, H. 2009. Counting elephants in Montane forests: some sources of error. African Journal of Ecology  47: 164-174. (Mount Kenya)

Graham MD, Douglas-Hamilton I, Adams WM, Lee PC. 2009. The movement of African elephants in a human-dominated land-use mosaic. Animal Conservation 12: 445-455.

Kahindi, O., G. Wittemyer, J. King, F. Ihwagi, P. Omondi & I. Douglas-Hamilton (2009) Employing participatory surveys to monitor the illegal killing of elephants across diverse land uses in Laikipia–Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, Online.

Ihwagi FW, Vollrath F, Chira RM, Douglas-Hamilton I, Kironchi G. 2010. The impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48: 87-95.

Kahindi, O., G. Wittemyer, J. King, F. Ihwagi, P. Omondi & I.Douglas-Hamilton. 2010. Employing participatory surveys to monitor the illegal killing of elephants across diverse land uses in Laikipia–Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48: 972–983.

King, L.E., J. Soltis, I. Douglas-Hamilton, A. Savage & F. Vollrath. 2010. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants. PLoS One 5:e10346.

Polansky, L. & G. Wittemyer. 2011. A framework for understanding the architecture of collective movements using pairwise analyses of animal movement data. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 8:322-333.

Wittemyer, G. 2011. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants. Conservation Biology 25:1002-1009.

Boettiger, A., G. Wittemyer, R. Starfield, F. Vollrath, I. Douglas-Hamilton & W. Getz. 2011. Inferring ecological and behavioral drivers of African elephant movement using a linear filtering approach. Ecology 92:1648–1657.

King L.E., I. Douglas-Hamilton & F. Vollrath. 2011. Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49:431-439.

Graham, M.D., W.M. Adams, WM & G.N. Kahiro. 2012. Mobile phone communication in effective human-elephant conflict management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Oryx 46: 137-144.

Obanda, V., T. Iwaki, N.M. Mutinda & F. Gakuya 2011. Gastrointestinal parasites and associated pathological lesions in starving free-ranging African elephants. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 41:167-172.

Ihwagi, FW, RM Chira, G Kironchi, F Vollrath & I Douglas-Hamilton. 2012. Rainfall pattern and nutrient content influences on African elephants' debarking behaviour in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 50:152-159.

Wittemyer, G., D. Daballen & I. Douglas-Hamilton. 2013. Comparative demography of an at-risk african elephant population. PLOS ONE 8:e53726.

Soltis, J., L.E. King, I. Douglas-Hamilton, F. Vollrath & A. Savage. 2014. African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees. PLOS ONE 9:e89403.

Wall, J., G. Wittemyer, B. Klinkenberg & I. Douglas-Hamilton 2014. Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring. Ecological Applications 24:593-601.

Wittemyer, G., J.M. Northrup, J. Blanc, I. Douglas-Hamilton, P. Omondi & K.P. Burnham. 2014, Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants PNAS 111:13117-13121.

Goldenberg, S.Z., I. Douglas-Hamilton, G. Wittemyer. 2016. Vertical transmission of social roles drives resilience to poaching in elephant networks. Current Biology 26:75–79.

Goldenberg, S.Z., and G. Wittemyer. 2018. Orphaning and natal group dispersal are associated with social costs in female elephants. Animal Behaviour 143:1-8.

Samburu Vervets:

Whitten, P.L. & T.R. Turner. 2008. Ecological and Reproductive Variance in Serum Leptin in Wild Vervet Monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137: 441-448.

Samburu pastoralists:

Lesorogol, C.K. 2008. Contesting the commons: privatizing pastoral lands in Kenya.  250 pp., Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan Press.


Sweetwaters/Ol Pejeta (see also

Tatman SC, Stevens-Wood B, Smith VBT. 2000. Ranging behaviour and habitat usage in black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, in a Kenyan sanctuary. African Journal of Ecology 38:163-172.

Birkett A. 2002.  The impact of giraffe, rhino and elephant on the habitat of a black rhino sanctuary in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 40:276-282.

Birkett A, Stevens-Wood B. 2005.  Effect of low rainfall and browsing by large herbivores on an enclosed savannah habitat in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 43:123-130.

Rice MB, Jones M. 2006.  Characteristics of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) bedding sites.  African Journal of Ecology 44:452-457.

Simiyu, T.W., G.A. Olukoye, J.W. Wakhungu & W.N. Wamicha. 2007.  Productivity indexing of wild herbivores on Lewa Wildlife Conservancy and Ol Pejeta Ranch in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:416-422.

See also Fischhoff et al. 2007 in Mpala articles.

Wahungu GM, Mureu LK, Macharia PG. 2010. Variability in survival and mortality of Acacia drepanolobium Sjostedt following prescribed burning at Olpejeta Conservancy, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 48:744-750.

Patton FJ, Mulama MS, Mutisya S, Campbell PE. 2010. The effect of removing a dividing fence between two populations of black rhinos. Pachyderm 47: 55-58.

Patton FJ, Mulama MS, Mutisya S, Campbell PE. 2010. The colonization of a new area in the first six months following 'same-day' free release translocation of black rhinos in Kenya. Pachyderm 47: 66-79.

Patton FJ, Campbell PE. 2010. Eighteen-month update on the movements and social organization of a population of black rhinos introduced to a new area by 'same day' free release translocation in Kenya. Pachyderm 48:71-72.

Burnham, D. & P. Riordan. 2012. Avoidance of mammalian predators by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in a risk landscape. Folia Primatologa 83: 288-298.

Mwakima, Margaret Wawuda. 2012. Ecotourism Sustainability in African Rangelands: Opportunities and Constraints: The Case of Il Ngwesi Communal Ranch and Sweetwaters Game Sanctuary, Kenya. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kenyatta University.

Wahungu, G.M., N.W. Gichohi, I.A. Onyango, L.K. Mureu, D. Kamaru, S. Mutisya, M. Mulama, J.K. Makau & D.M. Kimuyu. 2013. Encroachment of open grasslands and Acacia drepanolobium Harms ex B.Y.Sjostedt habitats by Euclea divinorum Hiern in Ol Pejeta Conservancy, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 5:130-138.

VanderWaal, K.L., E.R. Atwill, L.A. Isbell & B. McCowan. 2014. Quantifying microbe transmission networks for wild and domestic ungulates in Kenya. Biological Conservation 169:136–146.

VanderWaal, K.L., H. Wang, B. McCowan, H. Fushing & L.A. Isbell. 2014. Multilevel social organization and space use in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Behavioural Ecology 25:17-26.

VanderWaal, K.L., E.R. Atwill, L.A. Isbell & B. McCowan. 2014. Linking social and pathogen transmission networks using microbial genetics in giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Journal of Animal Ecology 83:406-414.

VanderWaal, K., G.P. Omondi & V. Obanda. 2014. Mixed-host aggregations and helminth parasite sharing in an East African wildlife-livestock system. Veterinary Parasitology 205:224-232.

Pobiner, B.L. 2015. New actualistic data on the ecology and energetics of hominin scavenging opportunities. Journal of Human Evolution 80:1-16.

Lush, L., M. Mulama & M. Jones. 2015. Predicting the habitat usage of African black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) using random forest models. African Journal of Ecology 53: 346-354.

VanderWaal, K.L., V. Obanda, G.P. Omondi, B. McCowan, H. Wang, H. Fushing & L.A. Isbell. 2016. The "strength of weak ties" and helminth parasitism in giraffe social networks. Behavioral Ecology 27:1190-1197.

Ng’weno, C.C., N.J. Maiyo, A.H. Ali, A.K. Kibungei & J.R. Goheen. 2017. Lions influence the decline and habitat shift of hartebeest in a semiarid savanna. Journal of Mammalogy 98:1078–1087.

Kavwele, C.M., M.J. Kinyanjui, J.K. Kimanzi. 2017. Time series monitoring of bush encroachment by Euclea divinorum in Ol Pejeta Conservancy Laikipia, Kenya. International Journal of Natural Resource Ecology & Management 2:85-93.

VanderWaal, K., M. Gilbertson, S. Okanga, B.F. Allan & M.E. Craft. 2017. Seasonality and pathogen transmission in pastoral cattle contact networks. Roy. Soc. Open Sci. 4:170808.

Cerling, T.E., S.A. Andanje, F Gakuya, J.M. Kariuki, L. Kariuki, J.W. Kingoo, C. Khayale, I. Lekolool, A.N. Macharia, C.R. Anderson, D.P. Fernandez, L. Hu, S.J. Thomas. 2018 Stable isotope ecology of black rhinos (Diceros bicornis) in Kenya. Oecologia 187:1095-1105. (also: Ol Jogi, Solio, Mugie?)

Miller, E.A., T.J. Johnson, G.O. Paul, E.R. Atwill, L.A. Isbell, B. McCowen & K. VanderWaal. 2018. Assessing transmission of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in wild giraffe contact networks. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, in press.

Costell, B.R. & D.I. Rubenstein. 2018. Temporal structuring of vigilance behaviour by female Thomson's gazelles with hidden fawns. Animal Behaviour 145:87-97.

Omondi, G., F. Gakuya, J.Arzt, A. Sangula, E. Hartwig, S. Pauszek, G. Smoliga, B. Brito, A. Perez, V. Obanda, K. VanderWaal. 2018/9. The role of African buffalo in the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in sympatric cattle and buffalo populations in Kenya. Preprint



Valdez, Ryan G. 2015. Influence of habitat and anthropogenic disturbance on the diversity, distribution and abundance of large mammals: a case study across four adjacent wildlife conservation areas in Laikipia County, Kenya. PhD Dissertation, George Mason University.


Lewa Conservancy ( & “Southern Samburu”):

Muoria, P.K., P, Muruthi, W.K. Kariuki, B.A. Hassan, D. Mijele & N.O. Oguge. 2007. Anthrax outbreak among Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) in Samburu, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:483–489.

See also Simiyu et al. 2007 in Sweetwaters articles.

Parker, G., S. Sundaresan, G. Chege & T. O'Brien. 2011.  Using sample aerial surveys to estimate the abundance of the endangered Grevy's zebra in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49: 56-61.

Nyaligu, M.O. & S. Weeks. 2013. An elephant corridor in a fragmented conservation landscape: preventing the isolation of Mount Kenya National Park and National Reserve. Parks 19.1:91-102.

Vanderwaal, K.L., H. Wang, B. McCowan, H. Fusing & L.A. Isbell. 2014. Multilevel social organization and space use in reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Behavioural Ecology 25:17-26.

Mutinda, M., G. Chenge, F. Gakuya, M. Otiende, P. Omondi, S. Kasiki, R.S. Soriguer & S. Alasaad. 2014. Detusking fence-breaker elephants as an approach in human-elephant conflict mitigation. PLOS ONE 9:e91749.

Dupuis-Desormeaux, M., Z. Davidson, M. Mwololo, E. Kisio, S. Taylor, S.E. MacDonald, 2015. Testing the prey-trap hypothesis at two wildlife conservancies in Kenya. PLOS ONE 10:e0139537 [Lewa and Borana]

Dupuis-Desormeaux, M., Z. Davidson, M. Mwololo. 2016. Comparing motion capture cameras versus human observer monitoring of mammal movement through fence gaps: a case study from Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 54:154-161. (Lewa)

Dupuis-Desormeaux, M., Z. Davidson, M. Mwololo, et al. 2016. Usage of specialized fence-gaps in a black rhinoceros conservancy in Kenya. African Journal of Wildlife Research 46:22-32.


Loldaiga (Lolldaiga) [see also Lane papers, and Lolldaiga Newsletters]:

Mizutani F, Jewell PA. 1998.  Home-range and movements of leopards (Panthera  pardus) on a livestock ranch in Kenya.  Journal of Zoology 244: 269-286.

Mizutani F. 1999. Impact of leopards on a working ranch in Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 37: 211-225. [See also a correction at 37:475]

Mizutani F. 1999.  Biomass density of wild and domestic herbivores and carrying capacity on a working ranch in Laikipia District, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 37:226-240.

Iles L, Martinon-Torres M. 2009. Pastoralist iron production on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya: wider implications for archaeometallurgical studies. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 2314-2326.

Mizutani, F., M. Kadohira & B. Phiri. 2012. Livestock-wildlife joint land use in dry lands of Kenya: A case study of the Lolldaiga Hills ranch. Animal Science Journal 83:510-516.

Zinner, D., C. Keller, J.W. Nyahongo, T.M. Butynski, Y.A. de Jong, L. Pozzi, S. Knauf, R. Liedigk & C. Roos. 2015. Distribution of mitochondrial clades and morphotypes of baboons Papio spp. (Primates: Cercopithecidae) in eastern Africa. Journal of East African Natural History 104: 143–168. (also, Chololo)


Mutara (see also publication #115 under Mpala, and Graham & Ochieng, above):

Chism, Janice Barker. 1980. A comparison of development and mother-infant relations in patas and talapoin monkeys, Ph.D. Diss., University of California, Berkeley.

Chism J, Olson D.K. 1982.  Patterns of habitat use by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 57:176-176

Chism J., D.K. Olson & T.E. Rowell. 1983.  Diurnal births and perinatal behavior among wild patas monkeys - evidence of an adaptive pattern.  Int J Primatol 4:67-184.

Olson D.K., Chism J. 1984.  Gum feeding as a dietary adaptation of wild patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) In Kenya. Int J Primatol 5: 370-370.

Olson D.K., Chism J. 1984.  Mating season and diet among wild patas monkeys in Kenya.  Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 63: 199-200.

Chism J. 1986.  Development and mother infant relations among captive patas monkeys. Int J Primatol 7: 49-81.

Chism J.B. & T.E. Rowell. 1986. Mating and residence patterns of male patas monkeys.  Ethology 72:31-39.

Rowell. T.E. & J. Chism. 1986.  The ontogeny of sex-differences in the behavior of patas monkeys.  Int J Primatol 7:83-107.

Harding, R.S.O. & D.K. Olson. 1986.  Patterns of mating among male patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Kenya. Am J Primatol 11:343-358.

Izard, M.K. & L.T. Nash. 1988. Contrasting reproductive parameters in Galago senegalensis braccatus and G. s. moholi. J Primatol 9:519-527.

Nash, L.T. & P.L. Whitten. 1989.  Preliminary-observations on the role of acacia gum chemistry in acacia utilization by Galago senegalensis in Kenya.  Am J Primatol 17:27-39.

Chism, J. & W. Rogers. 1997. Male competition, mating success and female choice in a seasonally breeding primate (Erythrocebus patas).  Ethology 103:109-126.

Van Eden, M., E, Ellis & B. Bruyere. 2016. The influence of human-elephant conflict on electric fence management and perception among different rural communities in Laikipia County, Kenya. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 21:283-296.


Engare Ndare (lower):

Hardy L.M. 1993.  Activity and reproductive patterns of of amphibians and reptiles from the Engare Ondare River region of Central Kenya, during the dry season.  Proc. Biol Soc. Wash. 106:740-748.

Hardy L.M. & A.C. Crnkovic. 2006.  Diet of amphibians and reptiles from the Engare Ondare River region of Central Kenya, during the dry season.  African Journal of Herpetology 55:143-159.


Chololo (Mukugodo):

Strum, S.C. 1987, 1990. Almost Human. A Journey into the World of Baboons. University of Chicago Press. (Second edition 2001, with a New Introduction and Epilogue.)

Barton, R.A., A. Whiten, S.C. Strum, et al. 1992. Habitat use and resource availability in baboons. Animal Behaviour 43:831-844.

Barton, R.A. 1993.   Sociospatial mechanisms of feeding competition in female olive baboons, Papio anubis .   Anim Behav 46:791-802.

Barton, R.A., A. Whiten, R.W. Byrne, et al. 1993. Chemical-composition of baboon plant foods - implications for the interpretation of intraspecific and interspecific differences in diet. Folia Primatol 61:1-20.

Barton, R.A. & A. Whiten. 1993. Feeding competition among female olive baboons, papio-anubis.   Anim Behav 46 (4): 777-789 Oct 1993

Barton, R.A. & A. Whiten. 1994.   Reducing complex diets to simple rules - food selection by olive baboons.   Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:283-293.

Sambrook, T.D., A. Whiten & S.C. Strum. 1995.   Priority of access and grooming patterns of females in a large and a small group of olive baboons.   Anim Behav 50:1667-1682.

Barton, R.A., R.W. Byrne & A. Whiten. 1996.   Ecology, feeding competition and social structure in baboons. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 38:321-329.

Strum, S.C. 1998.   Moving the Pumphouse Gang. International Wildlife :28: 12-21.

Castles, DL; Whiten, A. 1998.  Post-conflict behaviour of wild olive baboons. II. Stress and self-directed behaviour. Ethology 104:148-160.

Castles, DL; Whiten, A; Aureli, F 1999. Social anxiety, relationships and self-directed behaviour among wild female olive baboons. Animal Behaviour 58:1207-1215.

Strum, S.C. 2005.  Measuring success in primate translocation: A baboon case study American Journal of Primatology 65:117-140.

Forster, D. & P.F. Rodriguez. 2006. Social complexity and distributed cognition in olive baboons (Papio anubis): Adding system dynamics to analysis of interaction data.  Aquatic Mammals 32:528-543.

Frank, R.E. & J.B. Silk. 2009. Grooming exchange between mothers and non-mothers: the price of natal attraction in wild baboons (Papio anubis).  Behaviour 146: 889-906.

Strum, S. C., G. Stirling & S.K. Mutunga. 2015. The perfect storm: land use change promotes Opuntia stricta's invasion of pastoral rangelands in Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments 118:37-47.

Musyoki, C.M. & S.C. Strum. 2016. Spatial and temporal patterns of home range use by olive baboons (Papio anubis) in eastern Laikipia, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 54:349-356.


Mihok, S., S.K. Moloo, J.O. Odeny, R.A. Brett, J.G. Rakwar, E. Munyoki, J. Kiilu & C.A. Kyorku. 1996.  Attractiveness of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) to tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) (Diptera: Glossinidae) and other biting flies. Bull. Entom. Res. 86:33-41.

Patton F, Campbell P, Parfet E. 2007. Establishing a monitoring system for black rhinos in the Solio Game Reserve, central Kenya. Pachyderm 43:87-95.

Patton F, Campbell P, Parfet E. 2008. Biological management of the high density black rhino population in Solio Game Reserve, central Kenya. Pachyderm 44:72-79.

Svengren, H. & M. Bjorklund. 2010. An assessment of the density of a large carnivore using a non-invasive method adapted for pilot studies. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 40:121-129.

Otiende, M.Y. et al. 2015. Epidemiology of Theileria bicornis among black and white rhinoceros metapopulation in Kenya. BMC Veterinary Research 11:art4. (Solio & Mugie)

Otiende, M.Y. M.W. Kivata, M.J. Jowers, et al. 2016. Three novel haplotypes of Theileria bicornis in black and white rhinoceros in Kenya. Transboundary & Emerging Diseases 63:E144-E150. (Solio & Mugie)


Ol Jogi:

Kimber, K.R., J. Lubroth, E.J. Dubovi, M.L. Berninger & T.W. Demaar. 2002.  Serologic survey of selected viral, bacterial, and protozoal agents in captive and free-ranging ungulates from central Kenya. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 969:217-223.

Huebinger, R.M., T.W.J. De Maar, L.H. Woodruff, D. Pomp & E.E. Louis. 2006. Characterization of eight microsatellite loci in Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti). Molecular Ecology Notes 6:1150-1151.

Huebinger, R.M., T.W.J. De Maar, L.H. Woodruff, D. Pomp & E.E. Louis. 2006. Characterization of nine microsatellite loci in impala (Aepyceros melampus). Molecular Ecology Notes 6:1152-1153.

Ndung'u, F.K., M.W. Ndegwa & T.W.J. deMaar. 2003. Patent urachus with subsequent joint infection in a free-living Grevy's zebra foal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 39:244-245.

Muya, SM, MW Bruford, AWT Muigai, ZB Osiemo, E Mwachiro, B Okita-Ouma & B Goossens. 2011. Substantial molecular variation and low genetic structure in Kenya's black rhinoceros: implications for conservation. Conservation Genetics 12:1575-1588.

Ndeereh, D., B. Okita-Ouma, J. Gaymer, M. Mutinda & G. Gakuya. 2012. Unusual mortalities of the eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) due to clostridial enterotoxaemia in Ol Jogi Pyramid Sanctuary, Kenya. Pachyderm 51:45-51.


Karissa (Loroki , Leroghi Forest):

Borghesio L, Laiolo P. 2004. Seasonal foraging ecology in a forest avifauna of northern Kenya. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:145-155.

Lesorogol, C.K. 2008. Land privatization and pastoralist well-being in Kenya. Development & Change 39: 309–331.

Lesorogol, C.K. 2010.  The Impact of Privatization on Land Inheritance among Samburu Pastoralists in Kenya. Development & Change 41(6)   DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7660.2010.01668.x.

Lesorogol, C.K. & R.B. Boone. 2016. Which way forward? Using simulation models and ethnography to understand changing livelihoods among Kenyan pastoralists in a "new commons". International Journal of the Commons 10:747-770


Koija/Group ranches (and Mukugodo):

King EG, Stanton ML. 2008.  Facilitative effects of Aloe shrubs on grass establishment, growth, and reproduction in degraded Kenyan rangelands: Implications for restoration. Restoration Ecology 16: 464-474.

Odadi, W.O. 2018. Using heart girth to estimate live weight of heifers (Bos indicus) in pastoral rangelands of northern Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development 30:16.

King, E.G., L.A. German, N.P. Wachira, & D.R. Nelson. 2019. Unevenness in scale mismatches: Institutional change, pastoralist livelihoods, and herding ecology in Laikipia, Kenya. Geoforum, online early.


Kijabe (Mukugodo)

Mureithi, S.M., A. Verdoodt, J.T. Njoka, C.K.K Gachene, F. Warinwa, E. Van Ranst. 2015. Impact of community conservation management on herbaceous layer and soil nutrients in a Kenyan semi-arid savannah. Land degradation & Development, online early.



Cronk, L. 1989. From hunters to herders: subsistence change as a reproductive strategy among the Mukogodo. Current Anthropology 30:224-234.

Ng'ethe, R., A. Kariuki & C. Opondo. 1997. Some experience on adaptive research input on natural resource use: the case of gums and resins in Mukogodo rangelands, Laikipia District Kenya. Conservation, Management and Utilization of Plant Gums Resins and Essential Oils: Proceedings of a Regional Conference for Africa. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi, Kenya.

Mbuvi, J.P. & S.N. Wanjogu, 1998. Crusts and their influence on soil properties in two semi arid areas of Kenya. Appl. Plant Sci. Vol. 12: 83-87.

Mbuvi, J.P. & S.N. Wanjogu, 1998. Land degradation in Laikipia District. Appl. Plant Sci. 12:88-92

Little, P. D., K. Smith, B. A. Cellarius, D. L. Coppock & C. B. Barrett. 2001. Avoiding disaster: Diversification and risk management among east African herders. Development & Change 32:401-433.

Cronk, L. 2002. From true Dorobo to Mukogodo Maasai: contested ethnicity in Kenya. Ethnology 41:27-49.

Pearl FB, Dickson DB. 2004.  Geoarchaeology and prehistory of the Kipsing and Tol River watersheds in the Mukogodo Hills region of Central Kenya.  Geoarchaeology-An International Journal 19:565-582.

Mizutani, F., E. Muthiani, P. Kristjanson & H. Recke. 2005. Impact and value of wildlife in pastoral livestock production systems in Kenya: possibilities for healthy ecosystem conservation and livestock development for the poor. Pages 121-132 in S. A. Osofsky, S. Cleaveland, W. B. Karesh, M. D. Kock, P. J. Nyhus, L. Starr & A. Yang, editors. Conservation and Development Interventions at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface: Implications for Wildlife, Livestock and Human Health. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Mati BM, Morgan RPC, Quinton JN. 2006.  Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM at Embori and Mukogodo catchments, Kenya. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 31:579-588.

Lange CN, Mugambi J. 2006.  The butterflies of Mkogodo forests, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 44:286-289.

Webala PW, Muriuki G, Lala F, Bett A. 2006. The small mammal community of Mukogodo Forest, Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 44:363-370.

Cronk, L. 2007.  The influence of cultural framing on play in the trust game: a Maasai example. Evolution & Human Behavior 28:352-358.

Huho, J.M. J.K.W. Ngaira & H.O. Ogindo. 2009. Climate change and pastoral economy in kenya: a blinking future. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition 83: 1017-1023.

Nthiga, R.W., R. Van der Duim, I.J. Visseren-Hamakers, M. Lamers, 2015. Tourism-conservation enterprises for community livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Kenya. Development Southern Africa 32:407-423.

Strum, S.C., G. Stirling, S.K Mutunga, Steve Kalusi 2015. The perfect storm: Land use change promotes Opuntia stricta's invasion of pastoral rangelands in Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments 118:37-47.

Kibet, S., M. Nyangito, L. MacOpiyo & D. Kenfack. 2016. Tracing innovation pathways in the management of natural and social capital on Laikipia Maasai Group Ranches, Kenya. Pastoralism: Research, Policy & Practice 2016 6:16.

Mureithi, SM , A. Verdoodt, J.T. Njoka,  C.K.K. Gachene, F. Warinwa & E. Van Ranst. 2016. Impact of community conservation management on herbaceous layer and soil nutrients in a Kenyan semi-arid savannah. Land Degradation & Development 27:1820-1830.

Owuor, G., B. Knerr, J. Ochieng, et al. 2017. Community tourism and its role among agropastoralists in Laikipia County, Kenya. Tourism Economics 23: 29-236.

Yurco, K. 2017. Herders and herdsmen: The remaking of pastoral livelihoods in Laikipia, Kenya. Pastoralism-Research Policy & Practice 7:15.

Hauck, S. & D.I. Rubenstein. 2017. Pastoralist societies in flux: A conceptual framework analysis of herding and land use among the Mukugodo Maasai of Kenya. Pastoralism-Research Policy & Practice 7:18.

German, L., E. King, R. Unks & N.P. Wachira. 2017. This side of subdivision: Individualization and collectivization dynamics in a pastoralist group ranch held under collective title. Journal of Arid Environments 144:139-155.

Shackleton, R.T., A.B.R Witt, F.M. Piroris, et al. 2017. Distribution and socio-ecological impacts of the invasive alien cactus Opuntia stricta in eastern Africa. Biological Invasions 19:2427-2441.


Wright, HWY. 2006. Paternal den attendance is the best predictor of offspring survival in the socially monogamous bat-eared fox. Animal Behaviour 71:503-510.

Wagner, A.P., 2006. Behavioral ecology of the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena). Ph.D. dissertation. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.

Wagner AP, Frank LG, Creel S, Coscia EM. 2007. Transient genital abnormalities in striped hyenas (Hyaena hyaena). Hormones & Behavior 51:626-632.

Wagner AP, Creel S, Frank LG, Kalinowski ST. 2007. Patterns of relatedness and parentage in an asocial, polyandrous striped hyena population. Molecular Ecology 16:4356-4369.

George, O, B. Knerr, J. Ochieng, T. Wambua & C. Magero. 2017. Community tourism and its role among agropastoralists in Laikipia County, Kenya. Tourism Economics 23: 229–236.



Powys, A. & R. Schulz. 1998. Pinguone, Kenya: Succulents and their Environment. Schulz Publishing.

Taylor, D., P.J. Lane, V. Muiruri, A. Ruttledge, R. Gaj McKeever, T. Nolan, P. Kenny & R. Goodhue. 2005. Mid- to late-holocene vegetation dynamics on the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. Holocene 15:837-846.

Martins, D.J. 2010. Not all ants are equal: obligate acacia ants provide different levels of protection against mega-herbivores. African Journal of Ecology 48: 1115–1122.

Martins, D.J., S.C. Collins, C. Congdon & N.E. Pierce. 2013. Association between the African lycaenid, Anthene usamba, and an obligate acacia ant, Crematogaster mimosa. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 109: 302-312.

Visitacao, Joseph Martins. 2011. Multi-species Interactions in African Ants, Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University.

Baker, C.C.M. 2015. Complexity in mutualisms: indirect interactions with multiple parties. PhD dissertation, Harvard University

Baker, C.C.M., L.S. Bittleston, J.G. Sanders & N.E. Pierce. 2016. Dissecting host-associated communities with DNA barcodes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 371:20150328.

Leparmarai, P.T., D.M. Mwangi, I. Gluecks, F.M. Mutie & S. Marquardt. 2018. Plant selection and performance of two cattle types and camels on semiarid rangelands in Kenya. Rangeland Ecology & Management 71:798-806.



Ogada, D.L. & P.M. Kibuthu. 2008. Conserving Mackinder's eagle owls in farmlands of Kenya: assessing the influence of pesticide use, tourism and local knowledge of owl habits in protecting a culturally loathed species. Environmental Conservation 35: 252-260.

Ogada, D.L. 2008. The ecology and conservation of Mackinder's eagle owls (Bubo capensis mackinderi) in central Kenya in relation to agricultural land-use and cultural attitudes. Ph.D. thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa: 91 pp.

Ndiritu GG, Stephenson SL, Spiegel FW 2009. First records and microhabitat assessment of protostelids in the Aberdare Region, Central Kenya. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56:148-158   

Ogada, D.L. & P.M. Kibuthu. 2012. Breeding ecology of Mackinder's eagle-owls (Bubo capensis mackinderi) in farmlands of central Kenya. Journal of Raptor Research 46:327-335.


Naro Moru and environs

Mbaka, JG, M'Erimba, CM, Thiongo, HK, Mathooko, JM. 2014. Water and habitat quality assessment in the Honi and Naro Moru rivers, Kenya, using benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and qualitative habitat scores. African Journal of Aquatic Science 39:361-368

M’Erimba C.M, Mathooko J.M., Karanja H.T. & Mbaka J. 2014. Monitoring water and habitat quality in six rivers draining the Mt. Kenya and Aberdare catchments using macroinvertebrates and qualitative habitat scoring. Egerton J. Sci. & Technol. Volume 14: 81-104.

Mbaka, J.G. , C.M. M'Erimba , H.T. Karanja , J.M Mathooko & M.W. Mwaniki. 2016. Does the exclusion of meiofauna affect the estimation of biotic indices using stream invertebrates? African Zoology,51:91-97.

Muruku sub-location/Rumuruti

Lawyer PG, Mebrahtu YB, Ngumbi PM, Mwanyumba P, Mbugua J, Kiilu G, Kipkoech D, Nzovu J, Anjili CO. 1991. Phlebotomus guggisbergi (Diptera, Psychodidae), a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 44:290-298.

Johnson, R.N., P.M. Ngumbi, J.P. Mwanyumba, C.R. Roberts. 1993. Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Medical & Veterinary Entomology 7:216–218.

Johnson, RN; Lawyer, PG; Ngumbi, PM, et al. 1999. Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera : Psychodidae) seasonal distribution and infection rates in a defined focus of Leishmania tropica. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 60:854-858.

Anthonj, C., A. Rechenburg & T. Kistemann. 2016. Water, sanitation and hygiene in wetlands. A case study from the Ewaso Narok Swamp, Kenya. International Journal of Hygiene & Environmental Health 219:606-616.



Channing A & A. Schmitz. 2008. Hiding in plain sight: another cryptic dainty frog from the highlands of Kenya (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum). African Journal of Herpetology 57: 75-84


Ndang'ang'a, PK, Njoroge, JBM, Ngamau, K, Kariuki, W, Atkinson, PW & Vickery, J 2013. Effects of crop diversity on bird species richness and abundance in a highland East African agricultural landscape. Ostrich 84:33-39.

Ndang'ang'a, P.K., J.B.M. Njoroge & M. Githiru. 2014. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community assemblages in the highland agricultural landscape of Nyandarua, Kenya. Ostrich 84:171-179


Laikipia (Ewaso Nyiro) in general

Denney, R.N. 1972.  Relationships of wildlife to livestock on some developed ranches on Plateau, Kenya.  J. Range Management 25:415-425.

Karstad L; Thorsen J; Davies G, et al. 1977. Poxvirus Fibromas on African hares. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 13:245-247. (Suguroi River, 2200m)

Peden, D.G. 1987.  Livestock and wildlife population-distributions in relation to aridity and human populations in Kenya.  Journal of Range Management 40:67-71.

Mebrahtu, Y.B.. P.G. Lawyer, P.M. Ngumbi, et al. 1992. A new rural focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 86:381-387

Johnson, R.N., P.M. Ngumbi, J.P. Mwanyumba & C.R. Roberts. 1993.  Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya.  Medical & Veterinary Entomology 7:216-218.

Johnson, R.N, P.M. Ngumbi, J.P. Mwanyumba, et al. 1993. Host feeding preference of Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of Leishmania tropica in Kenya. Medical & Veterinary Entomology 7:216-

Sang, D.K, G.B.A. Okelo, C.W. Ndegwa, et al. 1993. New foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Kenya and the Rift Valley. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 87:629-632

Michelmore F. (1994) Keeping elephants on the map: Case studies of the application of GIS for conservation. In: Mapping the Diversity of Nature: 107-125. Miller R.I. (Ed.). London: Chapman & Hall

Coombs, MD; Dunachie, SJ; Brooker, S, et al. 1997. Snake bites in Kenya: A preliminary survey of four areas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 91:319-321.

Massamba, NN; Mutinga, MJ; Kamau, CC. 1998. Characterisation of Leishmania isolates from Laikipia District, Kenya. Acta Tropica 71:293-

Rwambo PM, Brodie SJ, DeMartini JC 2001. Ovine lentivirus is aetiologically associated with chronic respiratory disease of sheep on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya. Tropical Animal Health & Production 33:471-487

Thenya T. 2001.  Challenges of conservation of dryland shallow waters, Ewaso Narok swamp, Laikipia District, Kenya.  Hydrobiologia 458: 107-119.

Thenya, T. 2001.  Birding in Ewaso Narok Swamp, Rumuruti, a dryland swamp.  Kenya Birds 9:5-9.

Njiru, ZK; Kamau, DL; Mwendia, CMT, et al. 2002. The impact of surra on camel husbandry: A pilot study in Laikipia district of Kenya. Journal of Camel Practice & Research 9:139-144.

Chen H, Githeko AK, Zhou GF, Githure JI, Yan GY. 2006.  New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission.  Malaria Journal 5: Art. No. 17.

Cerling, T.E., P. Omondi & A.N. Macharia. 2007. Diets of Kenyan elephants from stable isotopes and the origin of confiscated ivory in Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:614–623.

Kindt, R., J.-P.B. Lillesø & P. van Breugel. 2007. Comparisons between original and current composition of indigenous tree species around Mount Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 45:633–644.

Njiru, ZK; Constantine, CC. 2007. Population sub-structuring among Trypanosoma evansi stocks. Parasitology Research 101:1215-1224.

Kantai P. 2007.  In the grip of the vampire state: Maasai land struggles in Kenyan politics.  Journal of Eastern African Studies 1:107-122.

Hughes, L. 2007. Rough time in paradise: claims, blames and memory making around some protected areas in Kenya. Conservation and Society 5:307-330.

Ngeranwa, J.J.N., S.P. Shompole, E.H. Venter, A. Wambugu, J.E. Crafford & B.L. Penzhorn. 2008. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 75:199-205.

de Jong, Y.A., T.M. Butynski & K.A. Nekaris. 2008.  Distribution and conservation of the patas monkey Erythrocebus patas in Kenya.  Journal of East African Natural History 97:83–102.

Darlington JPEC, Benson RB, Cook CE, et al. 2008. Resolving relationships in some African fungus-growing termites (Termitidae, Macrotermitinae) using molecular phylogeny, morphology, and field parameters. Insectes Sociaux 55:256-265.

Nyariki, D.M. 2009.Price response of herd off-take under market liberalization in a developing cattle sector: panel analysis applied to Kenya's ranching. Environment & Development Economics 14: 263-280.

Wambuguh, O. 2010. Conservation of biological diversity in developing countries: the issues, challenges and possible solutions. A case study in the Laikipia District of Kenya.  Lambert Academic Publishing.

Lengoiboni, M., A.K. Bregt, P. van der Molen. 2010. Pastoralism within land administration in Kenya- the missing link. Land Use Policy 27S: 579-588.

Heller R, Okello JBA, Siegismund H. 2010. Can small wildlife conservancies maintain genetically stable populations of large mammals? Evidence for increased genetic drift in geographically restricted populations of Cape buffalo in East Africa. Molecular Ecology 19:1324-1334. 

Causey, M.J. 2010.New archaeological discoveries from the Laikipia Plateau, Kenya. Azania 45: 112-136.

Graham MD, Notter B, Adams WM, Lee PC, Ochieng TN. 2010. Patterns of crop-raiding by elephants, Loxodonta africana, in Laikipia, Kenya, and the management of human-elephant conflict. Systematics & Biodiversity 8:435-445.

Wren, S. & C.I. Speranza. 2010. The struggle to diversify rural livelihoods: bio-enterprise initiatives and their impacts on agro-pastoralists and pastoralists communities in the drylands of Kenya. European Journal of Development Research 22: 751-769.

Lengoiboni, M., van der Molen, R., Bregt, A. K. 2011.  Pastoralism within the cadastral system: Seasonal interactions and access agreements between pastoralists and non-pastoralists in Northern Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments 75:477-486.

Ulrich, A., C.I. Speranza, P. Roden, B. Kiteme, U. Wiesmann & M. Nusser. 2012. Small-scale farming in semi-arid areas: Livelihood dynamics between 1997 and 2010 in Laikipia, Kenya. Journal of Rural Studies 28:241-251.

Ericksen, P. J. de Leeuw, M. Said, S. Silvestri & L. Zaibet. 2012. Mapping ecosystem services in the Ewaso Ng'iro catchment. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 8:122-134.

Silvestri, S., E. Bryan, C. Ringler, et al. 2012. Climate change perception and adaptation of agro-pastoral communities in Kenya. Regional Environmental Change 12:791-802.

Bond, J. 2014. A holistic approach to natural resource conflict: The case of Laikipia County, Kenya. Journal of Rural Studies 34:117–127.

Bond, J. 2014. Conflict, development and security at the agro–pastoral–wildlife nexus: a case of Laikipia County, Kenya. Journal of Development Studies 50:991-1008.

Silvestri, S., L. Zaibet, M.Y. Said & S.C. Kifugo. 2013. Valuing ecosystem services for conservation and development purposes: A case study from Kenya. Environmental Science & Policy 31:23–33.

Butynski T.M. & Y.A. de Jong. 2014. Primate conservation in the rangeland agroecosystem of Laikipia County, Central Kenya. Primate Conservation 28:117−128.

Bond, J. 2015. Making sense of human-elephant conflict in Laikipia County, Kenya. Society & Natural Resources 28:312-327.

Deem, S. L., E.M. Fevre, M. Kinnaird, A.S. Browne, D. Muloi, D & G-J. Godeke, G-J. 2015. Serological evidence of MERS-CoV antibodies in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedaries) in Laikipia County, Kenya. PLOS ONE 10:e0140125.

Roden, P., C. Bergmann, A. Ulrich, M. Nusser,. 2016. Tracing divergent livelihood pathways in the drylands: A perspective on two spatially proximate locations in Laikipia County, Kenya. Journal of Arid Environments 124:239-248. [Thome and Wiyumiririe]

Muriithi, F.K., D. Yu & S. Robila. 2016. Vegetation response to intensive commercial horticulture and environmental changes within watersheds in central highlands, Kenya, using AVHRR NDVI data. GIScience & Remote Sensing 53:1-21.

Evans, L.A. & W.M. Adams. 2016. Fencing elephants: The hidden politics of wildlife fencing in Laikipia, Kenya. Land Use Policy 51:215-228.

Bond, J. 2016. Extension agents and conflict narratives: a case of Laikipia County, Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Education & Extension 22:81-96.

Kuria, A., J. Ombui & A. Onyuka. 2016. Tannin analysis of selected plants from Laikipia County, Kenya. Journal of the Society of Leather Technologists & Chemists 100:73-76.

Ogutu JO, Piepho H-P, Said MY, Ojwang GO, Njino LW, Kifugo SC, et al. 2016. extreme wildlife declines and concurrent increase in livestock numbers in Kenya: what are the causes? PLoS ONE 11(9): e0163249. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0163249

Galaty, J.G. 2016. Reasserting the commons: pastoral contestations of private and state lands in East Africa. International Journal of the Commons 10:709-727.

Kemerick, J.S., S.N. Munyao, K, Scwartz, R. Ahlelrs & P. van der Zaag. 2016. Why infrastructure still matters: unravelling water reform processes in an uneven waterscape in rural Kenya. International Journal of the Commons 10: 1055-1081. (Likii watershed)

Kanyuuru, C.K., J. Mburu & J. Njoka. 2017. Adaptation of institutional arrangements to management of Northern Rangelands of Kenya. Environment Development and Sustainability 19:67-82.

Chepkwony, R.S. van Bommel, and F. van Langevelde. 2018. Citizen science for development: Potential role of mobile phones in information sharing on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Laikipia, Kenya. NJAS - Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 86–87:123-135.

Evans L.A., and W.M. Adams. 2018. Elephants as actors in the political ecology of human-elephant conflict. Trans Inst Br Geogr 43:630-645.


Hydrology, geography, and land use research in Laikipia; see also CETRAD and LRP products

"CETRAD was established in July 2002 as a follow-up of the Laikipia Research Programme (1976 - 1997)"

Kiteme, B., U. Wiesmann, E. Kinzi & J.M. Mathuva. 1998.  A highland-lowland system under transition pressure: a spatio-temporal analysis. Eastern and Southern Africa Geographical Journal 8S:45-53.

Wiesmann, U; Gichuki, FN; Kiteme, BP, et al. 2000. Mitigating conflicts over scarce water resources in the highland-lowland system of Mount Kenya. Mountain Research & Development 20:10-15.

Oteng'i, S.B.B., C.J. Stigter, J.K. Ng'ang'a & D.N. Mungai. 2000. Wind protection in a hedged agroforestry system in semiarid Kenya.  Agroforestry Systems 50:137-156.

Gikunju, J.K., K.W. Simiyu, P.B. Gathura, M. Kyule & L.W. Kanja. 2002. River water fluoride in Kenya.  Fluoride 35:193-196 AUG 2002

Kiteme,  B.P. & J. Gikonyo. 2002. Preventing and resolving water use conflicts in the Mount Kenya highland-lowland system through water users' associations. Mountain Research & Development 22:332-337.

Wiesmann, U., F.N. Gichuki, B.P. Kiteme & H. Liniger. 2000.  Mitigating conflicts over scarce water resources in the highland-lowland system of Mount Kenya. Mountain Research & Development 20:10-15.

Gichuki FN. 2004.  Managing the externalities of declining dry season river flow: A case study from the Ewaso Ngiro North River Basin, Kenya. Water Resources Research 40(8): Art. No. W08S03.

Mungai DN, Ong CK, Kiteme B, Elkaduwa W, Sakthivadivel R. 2004.  Lessons from two long-term hydrological studies in Kenya and Sri Lanka.  Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 104:135-143.

Aeschbacher J, Liniger H, Weingartner R. 2005.  River water shortage in a highland-lowland system - A case study of the impacts of water abstraction in the Mount Kenya region. Mountain Research & Development 25:155-162.

Liniger H, Gikonyo J, Kiteme B, et al. 2005.  Assessing and managing scarce topical mountain water resources - The case of Mount Kenya and the semiarid Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Mountain Research & Development 25:163-173.

Ngigi SN, Savenije HHG, Rockstrom J, Gachene CK. 2005.  Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers' investment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya.  Physics & Chemistry of the Earth 30:772-782.

Liniger H, Gikonyo J, Kiteme B, Wiesmann U. 2005. Assessing and managing scarce topical mountain water resources - The case of Mount Kenya and the semiarid Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin. Mountain Research & Development 25:163-173.

Ngigi SN, Rockstrom J, Savenije HHG. 2006.  Assessment of rainwater retention in agricultural land and crop yield increase due to conservation tillage in Ewaso Ng'iro river basin, Kenya.  Physics & Chemistry of the Earth 31:910-918.

Sekar, I & T.O. Randhir. 2007. Spatial assessment of conjunctive water harvesting potential in watershed systems. Journal of Hydrology 334: 39-52.

Notter B, MacMillan L, Viviroli D, Weingartner R, Liniger HP. 2007.  Impacts of environmental change on water resources in the Mt. Kenya region. Journal of Hydrology 343:266-278.

Ngigi SN, Savenije HHG, Gichuki FN. 2008. Hydrological impacts of flood storage and management on irrigation water abstraction in Upper Ewaso Ng'iro River Basin, Kenya. Water Resources Management 22: 1859-1879.

Mutiga JK, Su ZB, Woldai T. 2010. Using satellite remote sensing to assess evapotranspiration: Case study of the upper Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin, Kenya. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 12: S100-S108  

Mutisya DK, Tole M 2010. The Impact of Irrigated Agriculture on Water Quality of Rivers Kongoni and Sirimon, Ewaso Ng'iro North Basin, Kenya. Water Air & Soil Pollution 213: 145-149.


Holtzman J. 2007.  Eating time: Capitalist history and pastoralist history among Samburu herders in northern Kenya.  Journal of Eastern African Studies 1:436-448.

Lelenguyah, G.L., C.K.P.O. Ogol & P.K. Muoria. 2011. Historical distribution and threats to Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) in Samburu – an indigenous people perspective. African Journal of Ecology:258–260.


Pearce, F. 2015. Fencing up wildlife in Kenya's forests. New Scientist 225:16.


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